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Full text of "History of Rush County, Indiana, from the earliest time to the present : with biographical sketches, notes, etc., together with a short history of the Northwest, the Indiana territory, and the State of Indiana"

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3 1833 00097 1009 

/C3c 977.201 RB9HI5 

History of Rush County, 
! Indiana, from the earliest 
time to the present 













Democrat Printing Company, Madison, Wis. 



After several months of almost uninterrupted labor, the History 
\( of Rush County is completed. In issuing it to our patrons we do 
\f^ not claim for it perfection ; but that it contains that reasonable de- 
"!^ gree of accuracy which only could be expected of us, is confidently 
^ asserted. The difficulties that surround such an undertaking can 
scarcely be realized b}- one who has never engaged in work of the 
W kind. To reconcile the doubtful and often conflicting statements 
\^ that are so frequently made by those who would seem to be best 
informed, is a task both perplexing and tedious. Yet we believe 
,5.^; that we have been able to present a history of the county that is as 
nearly complete as reason can demand, and the book exceeds our 
promises in almost every particular. We have endeavored to set 
forth the facts in as concise and unostentatious language as possible, 
believing it is for the facts and not for rhetorical display that the 
book is desired. The mechanical execution and general appear- 
ance of the volume will recommend it, even to the fastidious. The 
arrangement of the matter is such as to render an index almost 
superfluous, as the subject under consideration is at the top of every 
right-hand page. For further details the italic subdivisions will 
enable the reader to refer with readiness to any topic. In the spelling 
of proper names there is such a wide difference, even among mem- 
bers of the same family, and it is a matter of so arbitrary a nature, 
that our only guide was each man's desire. Every clew that gave 
promise of important facts connected with the county's history has 
been investigated by those engaged in the work. We believe the 
volume will be favorably received and highly appreciated by those 
for whom it was prepared. Our thanks are due to those who have 
rendered us assistance and to our patrons. 

Chicago, III., March, 1888. 






Pfi'fiHiSTORic Races 17 

Antiquities 19 

Chinese, The 18 

Discovery by Columbus 33 

Explorations by the Whites 37 

Indians, The 31 

ImmigratioD, The First ]8 

Immigration, The Second 20 

Pyramids, etc. The 21 

Relics of the Mound-Builders 23 

Savage Customs 34 

Tartars, The 23 

Vincennes 39 

Wabash River, The 39 

White Men, The First ^ 37 


National Policies, etc 41 

American Policy, The 46 

Atrocity of the Savages 47 

Burning of Hinton 48 

British Policy, The 46 

Clark's Expedition 52 

French Scheme, The : 41 

Gilbault, Father 65 

Government of the Northwest „.. 67 

Hamilton's Career 64 

Liquor and Gaming Laws 74 

Missionaries, The Catholic 42 

Ordinance of 1787 70 

Pontiac's War 46 

Ruse Against the Indians 64 

Vigo, Francis 6 


Operations Against the Indians 75 

Battle at Peoria Lake 104 

Campaign of Harrison 92 

Cession Treaties 93 

Defeat of St. Clair 79 

Defensive Operations 76 

Expedition of Hanuer 75 

Expedition of Wayne 79 

ExpeditioQ of St. Clair 78 

Expedition of Williamson 78 

Fort Miami, Battle of 80 

Harrison and the Indians 87 

Hopkins' Campaign 105 

Kickapoo Town, Burning of. 78 

Maumee, Battle of. 75 

Massacre at Pigeon Roost I(i3 

Mississinewa Town, Battle at 106 

Oratory, Tecumseh's 114 

Prophet Town, Destruction of 100 

Peace with the Indians 106 

Siege of Fort Wayne 101 

Siege of Fort Harrison 103 

Tecumseh Ill 

Tippecanoe, Battle of. 98 

War of 1812 101 

War of 1812, Close of the 108 


Organization of Indiana Territory 82 

Bank, Establishment of 120 

Courts, Formation of 120 

County Offices, Ai)pointment of. 119 

Corydon,the Capital 117 

Gov. Pospy 117 

Indiana in 1810 84 

Population in 1815 118 

Territorial Legislature, The First 84 

Wettem Sun, The 84 

CHAPTER V. page. 

Organization of the State, etc 121 

Amendment, The Fifteenth 147 

Black Hawk War 126 

Constitution, Formation of the 121 

Campaigns Against the Indians 128 

Defeat of Black Hawk 130 

Exodus of the Indians 131 

General Assembly. The First 122 

Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Treaty of 142 

Harmony Community 134 

Indian Titles 132 

Immigration 125 

Lafayette, Action at 127 

Land Sales 133 

Mexican War, The 136 

Slavery 144 


Inijiana IN THE Rebellion 148 

Batteries of Light Infantry 182 

Battle Record of States 188 

Call to Arms, The 149 

Colored Troops of Indiana 182 

Calls ot 1861 177 

Field, In the 152 

Independent Cavalry Regiment 181 

Morgan's Raid 170 

Minute-Men 170 

One Hundred Days' Men 176 

Regiments, Formation of. 151 

Regiments, Sketch of. 153 

Six Months' Regiments 172 


State Affairs After the Rebellion 189 

Agriculture 209 

Coal 207 

Divorce Laws 193 

Finances 194 

Geology 205 

Internal Improvements 199 

Indiana Horticultural Society 212 

Indiana Promological Society 213 

Special Laws 190 

State Bank 196 

State Board of Agriculture 209 

State Expositions 210 

Wealth and Progress 197 


Education and Benevolence 215 

Blind Institute, The 232 

City School System 218 

Compensation of Teachers 220 

Denominational and Private Institutions.... 230 

Deaf and Dumb Institute 236 

Education 265 

Enumeration of Scholars 219 

Family Worship 252 

Free School System, The 215 

Funds, Management of the 217 

Female Prison and Reformatory 241 

Houseof Refuge, The ... 243 

Insane Hospital, The 238 

Northern Indiana Normal School 229 

Origin of School Funds 221 

Purdue University 224 

School Statistics 218 

State University. The 222 

State Normal School 228 

State Prison, South' 239 

State Prison, North 240 

Total School Funds 220 




Geology— Geueral Description — Topogra- 
phy — Drainagfe — List of Fossils— Euo- 
noiuic Geology — Ai-chspology 347 


iNDiirf History- Early Tribes— The Dela- 
wares — 'Ireaty Ceding Knsh County to 
the United Slates — Miscellaneous Items. 279 


County Organization— Early Acts of the 
Cuunty Board— Township C'r;?anization 
— Officers Appointed — 'Ihe Boaidof Jus- 
tices— Eal^y Revenues— Yearly l- inances 
—The C 'urt Hou-ies-Jads— Later Town- 
ships — The County Poor — Medical Soci- 
ety — Agricultural — Blooded Stociv — 
Roads— Elections— County Officers 2S4 


Early Settlements in Rush County — 
Squaiters- First Permanent Settlers- 
Early Struggles for Land — Character of 
the Pioneers- Life in the Woods— Build- 
ing the Cabin— Blue Grass— Work of the 
Men -Wild Game— Work of the Women 
— Amusements— HunI in g— Trade — Agri- 
culiure— Land Entries— Earlv Industi ies 
—Old Settlers' Meetings— Reminiscen- 
ces, etc 319 


Bench and Bar— First Circuit— Karly Judi- 
cial System — Organization of the Courts 
—First >essioiis— The Young Murder 
Trial— Trial and txecution of Swanson 
—Other Murder Cas^s— Compar son of 
Business of the Early Cnui ts with That 
of the Present— The Megee Will Case— 
The Court of Coiiim m Pleas— Attorneys 
of Prominence — The Present B:ir— 
Judges and Oiher Court Officers- RlU 
of Attorneys 397 


Military History— The Camp'iign of 18^0 
— R.'solntions and PuU.c Opinion— Be- 
ginning of Hn-tiliries — First Company 
for the War — P'lag Pi eseiiiation — Home 
Defense- A Lull in the Stai m— Renewed 
Volunteering — Other Ci^mpaniesof Rush 
Ciunty Men— Public Opmi 'n in l8i3-64 
— Bounty and Relief— Men Furnished for 
the War— Roll of Honor 447 


Rel-giou.s History- Religinn of the Pion- 
eers— Prevalence of Keligious Senti- 
ment—The Church' s— Traits of the Re- 
ligi'ius Devotees— Church of Christ- 
Methodist Eijiscopal—Bantists— Presby- 
terians— Friends— Catho i s— We-leyans 
—Christian Union- Ad veotists— Colored 
Churches 5:!4 


Towns— Rnshville. Its Founding and First 
Sei tiers— t*ublic Buildings— Sale of Lots 
—Sites of the E-irly Houses— First Busi- 
ness Ventures — Plats and Additions — 
Mills — Railroads— Incorporation — Public 
Improvements — The Press — Banks — 
Loan Associations — Secret Societies — 
Present Business Interests— Carthage— 
Milroy— Manilla —Arlington — New Sa- 
lem — Gleiiwood — Falmouth — Raleigh 
and Others 638 


Schools- Development of Education from 
the Earliest Times — Indiana fccliool Sys- 
tem—Pioneer School Houses— Local 
Details ii Washington Township— Cen- 
ter — Ripley — Pusey — Jackson — Union — 
Noble — Wnlker— Orange — iVndei son — 
Richland— Rubhvil.e— County School Of- 
ficeis, etc ' 



Adams, Edward P 495 

Akers, Perry 369 

Aldridge, Joseph F 351 

Alexander, Thomas G . . - 496 

Alger, Josiah C 673 

Allison, Amos 477 

Alter, Charles 477 

Amos Family, The 425 

Anderson, James \V 539 

Applegate, Oscar 426 

Armstroug, Henry 427 

Arnold, John 674 

Baity, Henry F 496 

Ball, Cyrus W 497 

Barnard, B. G 676 

Barton, James A 351 

Beale, James 409 

Beaver, David 427 

Bebout, Abner S38 

Beckner, Henry W 498 

Bell, Samuel J 370 

Bennett, Francis M 677 

"Bentley, John B 499 

Berry, E. H. M 678 

Bigger, Finley 67S 

JBillings, James 370 

Binford, Jared P 55S 

Binford, Jonatlian 559 

Binford, Joseph 556 

Binford, Josiah C 557 

Binford, Joseph J 560 

Binford, Levi 560 

Binford, Micajah 555 

Bishop, Purnel 768 

Bitner, John 371 

Blair, William A 352 

Blount, Jacob B 500 

Bowles, James 371 

Bowles, Thomas J 352 

T3owling, John 478 

Brooks, Mahlon 540 

Brooks, Melvin \V 428 

Brooks, William M 427 

Brown, Barker 353 

Brown, Daniel, Jr 68 1 

Brown, James W 680 

Brown, Nicholas 501 

Buell, Dewitt C b8i 

Bundy, William 561 

Bussel, James 769 

Caldwell, George T 682 

Caldwell, Harvey 411 

Caldwell, James H 6S2 

Caldwell, Jpmes M 410 

Campbell, George W 682 

Carney, H. S 428 


Carr, James R S39 

Carr, Oscar L 478 

Carson, John 855 

Carter, Daniel T 372 

Chandler, Martha A 372 

Churchill, Jefferson 683 

Clark, Catharine 373 

Clark, George C 6i54 

Clark, John M 562 

Clifton, Samuel F 770 

Cole, Ulysses D 6S7 

Collins, Eli B 502 

Collins, William .... 502 

Conaway, John M 504 

Conaway, Samuel 503 

Conn, Jesse 354 

Conner, Beaufort L 541 

Cook, Robert B 771 

Cook, William M 770 

Cox, Cyrus B 565 

Crane, Isaac 35 

Creed, W'illiam H 839 

Culbertson, James 429 

Culbertson, John H 688 

Cullen, William A 688 

Custer, Joseph 856 

Dagler, William 691 

Davidson, John 429 

Davis, James R 355 

Davis, John W 542 

Davis, Samuel H 354 

Dillon, J. C 374 

Downey, Jacob F 5°^ 

Downey, James 412 

Downey, James H 5°S 

Downey, "Morton H 692 

Drake, F. J 566 

Duke, Alfred 692 

Duncan, William 355 

Dunn, Robert 693 

Earnest, John B 567 

Ebright, George W 693 

Ellison, Jerome 694 

Ellison, William J S39 

Elstun, Freeman 356 

Elstun, George B 356 

Elwell, H. H 856 

English, Andrew B 375 

English, John A S40 

English, William 507 

Ertel, Charles 858 

Ertel, Philip 857 

Farlow, Joseph ^^ 357 

Farlow, Reuben J 356 

Ferree, John W 357 

Feudner, Jacob 694 


Florea, Cyrus 375 

Florea, Joseph S 377 

Florea, Josiah 376 

Forbis, James M 567 

Fort, Brice D 377 

Foust, Benjamin 568 

Foust, Rachel M 568 

Fox, William C 771 

Foxworthy. James H 378 

Frazee, Aaron 695 

Frazee, Benjamin 430 

Frazee, Ephraim S 430 

Gahimer, Jacob 840 

Gantner, John 696 

Gates, Isaac T 570 

Gates, Samuel 569 

Cause, Clarkson 571 

Gilbert, Charles H 696 

Gilson, Washington 379 

Cling, Lawrence 772 

Glore, James D 697 

Gordon, William F 697 

Gorman, John M 413 

Gowdy, John K 698 

Graham, David 699 

Gray, James 414 

Gray, James 772 

Gray, John T 773 

Green, Eli 479 

Cireen, Lot 414 

Green, Thomas M 701 

Greenwood, William R.. S59 

Griffith, Samuel 4S0 

Ciuffin, Andrew 432 

Guffin, George 433 

Gwynne, G. T- T. O'B... 572 

Hackleman, P. A 70 1 

Haehl, Frederick E 842 

Haehl, Frederick J S41 

Haehl, John M 841 

Hall, Festus 573 

Hall, Frank J 705 

Hall, Henry - 775 

Hall, William S 859 

Hamilton, James L 3S0 

Harton, Joseph 358 

Havens, George H 706 

Havens, W iUiam 705 

Hawkins, George W 542 

Headley, Eliza J 842 

Heaton, Joseph 433 

Helm, Jefferson 709 

Henby, William B 574 

Henderson, J. F 481 

Hendricks, Isaac 862 

Henley, Albert 584 


Henley, Charles 577 

Henley, Henry 576 

Henley, Henry M 580 

Henley, Hiram H 584 

Henley, Joseph 575 

Henley, Owen S 579 

Henley, R. Edgar 583 

Henley, Robert 578 

Henley, Thomas W 577 

Henley, William 5S3 

Henley, William J 711 

Hildreth, James M 712 

Hill, Aaron 594 

Hill, Allen 595 

Hill, Amos 591 

Hill, Benjamin 592 

Hill, Isaac 590 

Hill, Jesse 885 

Hill, John R 593 

Hill, Micajah 588 

Hill, Milton 590 

Hill, Miriam 5S7 

Hill, Miriam E 594 

Hill, Nathan C 589 

Hill, Owen S 593 

Hill, Samuel B 862 

Hill, Thomas 586 

Hilligoss, Elias T 481 

Hilligoss, Sylvester 843 

Hinchman, Allen 777 

Hinchman, Jnmes 775 

Hinchman, John T 777 

Hinchman, Robert N 7 78 

Herkless, John B 573 

Kite, William N 543 

HoUoway, David S 595 

HoUowell, Datus E 863 

Holraan, Joseph 434 

Holmes, James M 544 

Hmne, George 712 

Humes, John C 434 

Hudelson, Benj. F 3S2 

Hudelson, John M 3S0 

Hudelson, Robert A 381 

Hunt, Abijah W 435 

Hunt, Libni 596 

Hurst, St. Clair 843 

Hutchinson, Robert 507 

Inlow, John J 843 

Ivins, John S64 

Jackson, B. F 864 

Jackson, John 865 

Jeffries, James G 596 

Jessup, Samuel H 597 

Jones, George S 845 

Jones, Thomas A S46 

Jones, William A 713 

Julian, WiUiam 358 

Junken, Edward A 508 

Keisling, George L 359 

Kemp, Waller L 714 

Kennedy, Archibald M.. 714 

King, William L 716 

Kiplinger, B. F 417 

Kiplinger, George T 416 

Kiplinger, Harriet 715 

Kirkpatrick, John W 415 

Kirkpatrick, William 415 

Kirkwood, David W 598 

Kiser, James 781 

Lakin, James S 716 

Laughlin, Harmony 718 

Laughlin, William B 718 

Lee, William H 511 

Lefforge, Ephraim 436 

Lefforge, Isaac 544 

Legg, George W 866 

Leisure, George W 512 

Levvark, M. V. B 719 

Lighlfoot, A. C 866 

Logan, James W 547 

Logan, Samuel H 436 

Logan, Thomas 846 

Looney, John W 782 

Lord, Jonathan L 385 

Loudenback, Daniel B 601 

Lower, John W 720 

Lyons, Charles H 3S5 

McCarty, Jacob F 602 

McCarty, John 601 

McCarty, John H 603 

McDuffie, iMar\- 514 

McFarlan, B. L 484 

McGinnis, Loyd W 485 

Mckee, Charles H 439 

McMahan, S. W 722 

McMichael, William }... 514 

McMillen, JohnT 782 

Machlan, Benjamin 483 

Machlan, William 483 

Macy, John B 720 

Madden, Thomas 72 1 

Manlove, David 868 

Manlove, George W 871 

Maple, James 872 

iMarlow, Alphonso B 54S 

Marlin, JohnW 386 

Mauzy, VVilliam H 7S2 

Maze, William 873 

Meek, John T 359 

Megee, John D 723 

Meredith, William S 723 

Miles, R. S 874 

Miller, Abram 515 

Miller, Charles S 549 

Miller, Hamilton 439 

Miller, Harrison 724 

Miller, Josiah 847 

Miller, Thomas 724 

Mitchell, Thomas V 440 

Moffett, John 727 

Moffitt, Thomas W 785 

Moore, Joshua 603 

Morris, Aaron H 386 


Morris, Theodore 417 

Morris, William 785 

Moses, John F 728 

Mull, Cyrus 847" 

Mull, Frederick 850- 

Mull, Henry C 729 

Midi, William 849 

Mull, William D 849 

Mullen, Cyrus F 730 

Murphy, James 440 

Murphy, Jesse 786 

Myers, John S 441 

Nelson, Thomas B 515 

Newby, Thomas T 604 

Newhouse, Lewis J 418- 

Newkirk, Thomas J 731 

Newlin, Stanley C 441 

Newsom, Allen W 605. 

Newsom, Luke 6o5i 

Nipp, John 6o6> 

Nixon, Charles 731 

Nolan, Michael 732 

Norris, Benjamin F 442 

Ochiltree, Thomas M 733 

Offutt, Mary H 516 

Offutt, Rhoda M 517 

Orme, Henry. 734 

Orwin, W. S 734 

Osborn, Theodore 736 

Osborne, John H 735 

Overman, J oseph 607 

Owen, Joseph 486 

Parker, OIney T 609 

Parker, Philip D 38S 

Parker, Priscilla 608 

Parker, Theodore F 389 

Parker, William 360 

Parsons, James L 736 

Patton, Samuel R 550 

Pavey, Absalom 737 

Peck, John F 38 J 

Perkins, Jehu 442 

Perry, Robert W 73S 

Phelps, Henry C 610 

Phelps, Jesse L 610 

Phillips, Richard H 518 

Pitts, Samuel C 611 

Plough, John 738- 

Plough, Joseph 551 

Porter, John 421 

Porter, Phebe 612 

Poston, (^)uincy A 443, 

Powell, Homer 422 

Powell, John M 422 

Power, John H 739 

Power, Richard M 361 

Power, William S 360 

Price, Elihu 519 

Price, George W 520 

Price, John F 520 

Priest, David F 740 

Prill, H. F 487. • 


Publow, Joseph F 613 

Pugh, William A 741 

Puntenney, George H 741 

I'usey, Caleb W 614 

Rea, David D 874 

Redenbaugh, Philip 4S7 

Rees, John 7S6 

Reeve, George W 443 

Reeves, William F 390 

Retherford, Levi R 742 

Rhodes, Abraham 39 1 

Rhodes, Albert 392 

Rhodes, Bazil 444 

Rhodes, Heniy S 391 

Rhodes, William F 392 

Ricketts, William 361 

Righler, Oliver W 615 

Rigsbee, Martin 521 

Rowe, George W 362 

Ruby, Jacob 616 

Scott, J'ohn H 552 

Selby, C. M 4S9 

Selbv, James H 4S8 

Sexton, H. G 742 

Sexton, John C 748 

Sexton, Leonidas 746 

Sexton, Marshall 746 

Sharp, William 362 

Shauck, John L 749 

Shawhan, Daniel P 749 

Shields, Bennett 423 

Siler, Jesse H 616 

Simras, Michael M 750 

Small, Zachariah T 522 

Smith, Benjamin L 751' 

[ PAGE f 

Smith, Jetson W 363 1 

Smith, Joel F 362 

Sohn, John 522 

Somerville, William 363 

Souther, John F 393 

Spann, Jesse J 752 

Spritz, Charles S 753 

bpringer, William 4S9 

Spurgeon, Joseph 364 

Spurrier, John A 753 

Slamm, J- H. G 444 

Stewart, James W 552 

Stewart, Simeon H 754 

Stewart, William A 553 

Stinger, Logan 619 

Stu\\'hig, Daniel 393 

Study, John W 754 

Swain, "Alfred 755 

Tevis, A. D 490 

Thomas, Daniel L 756 

Thomas, George W 850 

Thomas, Samuel C 3671 

Thomas, William 364 

Thornburg, Thomas 619 

Todd, Andrew J 394' 

Tomes, Joseph 853 

Ti'ees, Cyrus 854 

Trees, James W S53 

Trueblood, Edwin P 62 1 

Vickery, A. B 875' 

Waggoner, Aris 493 

W'aggoner, William A... 490 

Walker, John 621! 

Walker, John W 622 ' 

Walker, William L 623 


Wallace, William E 757 

Walsh, John A 758 

Wanee, John 875 

Weavinger, John H. W.. 394 

Webb, Isaac 758 

Weeks, Nathan 759 

Welliver, James E 760 

Werking, Samuel S76 

White, Albert 623 

White, Alfred P 445 

White, Edgar T 624 

While, Jonathan S 7S8 

Whiteman, William 368 

Wikoff. Garrett 787 

Wikoff, Garrett D 7S7 

Wilson, James 446 

Wilson, John J 423 

Wilson, William H 446 

WiUey, E. A 493 

Winship, Albert L 764 

W^inship, Amos 368 

Winship, Benjamin F 368 

W'inship, Jesse T 763 

Winship, Joseph S 554 

Winship, Lewis E 760 

Winship, Orlando 625 

Wolfe, Joel 764 

Wright, Harvey 395 

Wright, Jonathan G 494 

Wright, Thomas 396 

Wyalt, George C 765 

Young, Edward 766 

Young, George W 767 

Young, Lewis 495 

Zion, John Q 626 



Anderson, J. W 6S9 

Arnold, John 275 

Bitner, John 671 

Blount, Jacob B 509 

Brown, Barker 365 

Clark, George C 257 

Clark, John M 563 

Connei-, B. L., facing 536 

Elwell, H. H 419 

Ertel, Charles 761 

Frazee, Benjamin 527 

Gwynne, G. J. T. O'B. .. 599 
Hackleman, P. A. Frontispiece 

Hall, Frank J 401' 


Hall, ^Villiam S., facing.. 860 

Hill, Samuel B 707 

Hinchman, Robert N 779 

HoUoway, D. S 473 

Hudelson, John M 383 

Hudelson, K. A., facing . 385 

Humes, John C 743 

Jackson, William 293 

Kennedy, A. M 311 

Lightfoot, A. C S69 

Logan, J. W 545 

McFarlan, B. L 491 

McMillan, John T 329 

MiUer, Charles S 851' 


Miller, Harrison, facing.. 716 

Moffett, John 725 

Mull, Cyrus 635 

Murphy, Jesse 797 

Newby, Thomas T 617 

Norris, B. F 815 

Ochiltree, Thomas M 653 

Power, William S 833 

Sexton, Leonidas, facing. 245 

Trees, James W 347 

Walker, William L 581 

Wilson, James 437 

Young, Jidward 455 




Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins 
and though their divergence of opinion maj^ for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinioTis of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitious, claims a continuous liistory from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 165G anno tniindi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Cliinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent, 


■will not be claimed; because it is not probable, though it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected by the immediate 
followers of the first j)rogenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumii- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the countiy, it will be just 
sufiicient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
heaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a "Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Euilders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
175Y, A. M. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
tc them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
raths, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 


periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched tor tlie return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
TheraputcE of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed TlieraputiB or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of tlieir civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli; the open veins ®f the Superior and Iron Mountain, 
copper-mines, with all ihemodus oj)era?idi of ajicient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that man}' flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by tlieir gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European Northman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45° was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebra averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebrae ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the sliaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-nve feet, so that he may 


devour the budding tops of those great trees. Other eflbrts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such aconsummatiou; nor is it beyond tlie range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because tiie influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom sa^-s: "It is now the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet further confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same familj'; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, caine originally from Asia, and were the Iliongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in nianifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid) 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
squai-e base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead .of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
•were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims \vere sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezuraas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their liearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped ia a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanisra urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before tlie march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and ISTorthwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating for ages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it ofi'ered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Quenches and Huil. 
tidies of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republid 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 


in some hasty eifort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the " Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications wliich has 
ever come under my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the ' Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow I'idge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridtre, facinoc the creek. This natural wall 


is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet liigh. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliiFs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in liis efforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there aie channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the otliers, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as afibrding an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' Tiiere is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which fairnished a narrow passageway to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
sti'onghold, one is compelled to admit that raucli skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 


all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing the field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Eone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. " It is," he states 
" situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
i& about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
■water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and afforded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. . The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by the cottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especiallj^ rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, and is still found in such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of cluj, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. Tliey lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and 



stone. Iq some of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state oi" preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fragments are so common that every student of 
archffiology can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" jSTow, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank ia 
its relatioii m' thf iiri'ln'storic builders. 




The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west ot 
the village of New "Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, ofi"er a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Off Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
sj'stem of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglypliical characters really areo 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the waj-s of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
t'aken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere sneculation. 


Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with liieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the terra "New World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It sajs: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. Tiie difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidse. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 
gave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Brown, the latest authority, attributes, in his " Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He says that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think that Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage wei'e aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their lucas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hunting bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- . 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
^jears later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western -world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
aftep centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country hj the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A modern writer says, 
when speaking of tlie Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion ol 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military sj'stems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
9f the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 



sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the I'esort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, 'they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the flery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whifi'. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is l)ounded on the east by the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from tlie mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the ipouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash ; on the west hyaline drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its moiith to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and ou the north 
by said lake and an east and- west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and il° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These exjalorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were received 


S8 nisTOET OF I^^^IANA. 

in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They ^ere made the 
honored guest; at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buflalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
16S2 LaSalle explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the i-egion now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis projaer (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
, Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dunse enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited bj' Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity. 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 16S9 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Eyswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIV., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary eflbrts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 



The Wabash was first named bj' the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Yinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Viucennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Vinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 40S pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Vinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Vinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this ofScer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Vinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Vinsenne, who" 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving a name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Vin- 
cennes, changed from Vinsenne to its present orthography in 17i9. 

Post Vincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: "Ze* Francois itoient itabli unfort sur 


le flewee Ouahache ; ila demanderent un missionaire / et le Pere 
Mermet leurfut envoye. Ce Pei'e crut devoir iravailler a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qxd avoient fait un village sur les 
hords dumerae Jleuve. Cest tme nation Indians qui entend la 
langue Illinoise." Translated: " The French have established a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was tlierefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buffalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance> and which one of 
his nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. '"Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
toii which inliabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the ease the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Chui-ch annals, was Meurin, in lSi9. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rough exterior, of upriglit posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement ou tlie outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfiT and an equally 
small bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Vincenues lias ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the Wea river, 
among the Ouiateuons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 16S2, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the "West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of Attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: "We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill ; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the river side. We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them ; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of -winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
hio vessel (the GrifSn) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
hs concealed it as much as he could. "We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such tests as were 
suitable to our pre?ent circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one, is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an iudifterent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Puttawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re^: 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the Im 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 

^^ w 




More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1705 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamia proper, 
300 Weas, or Ouiatenons, 300 Piankeshawsand 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of tlie Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 16S8 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
Is^orth America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghaiiies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturall3f culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of xforth America east of the Mississippi except ISTew Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 



In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been snrrendered 
to the English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the "West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the ISTorthwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river "Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Yincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British government opposed any meas- 
iires which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the e&rlj and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territor}^ was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of "Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Yincennes by 
Clark, he engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
andestablish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson" was 
erected and garrisoned on the MississipiDi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

Tlie result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " ISTorth- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Recollections of the 
Wabash Yalley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Ilinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Rue and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Ilinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say AVhoa 
to the liorses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why he had called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 


but said that lie had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for .you; it was Simon Girty that 
cried "\Ylioa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-iiole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kentuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners w-ere cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the w^agon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by au 
Indian with an uplifted tomahaw-k. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a .worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and bojs, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captnred. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled np the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless suflerer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
soon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


liim in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which lie bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingl}' thrust into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell tlie fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Holman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said : " I 
adopt you as my son, to till the place of the one I have lately buried ; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep tor description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound liim to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said: "I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
■will be glad when I tell her that I have brouglit her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holman was taken back to Wa-pnc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Eue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were -spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at' Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the e.xcited 

'Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, "You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will eifect it soon. Tou will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of iinding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind; after that you will have plenty c-f 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Ilolman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisi'action existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

While with the Indians, Ilolman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Kichard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his iiesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ivy., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached liorae only three 
day^ after the arrival of Eue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Kichmoud, Ind. 


In the Slimmer of 1778, Col. George Eogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Ya., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Yincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the vallej' of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the "West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 




biifg and "Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the "Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a abont seven acres, and 
divided it among a small nnmber of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cenues comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people 'regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in liis favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said tiiat the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Earey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readWy took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Yigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the 6nly currency, and Yigo found great difiiiculty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold coffee atone 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their httle bills. 


"Douleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sub- 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than tlie douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, tlie post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to " the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison. their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their style of language 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they oftered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with tlie Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a difierent method from what had always before been 
followed. Ey indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi, 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as "Illinois " county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 


30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Yincennes in December, 1778. JN^o attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. • Capt. Helm and a 
man nslmed Henry were the only Americans at tlie fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia aud crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel bad to work hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suflfered them to shootgame whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men bj' his example. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th, after suifering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a diii'erent opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the IStli they heard the signal gun at Vincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hovering about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, wlien about noon the 
sentinel on the riv^r brought a boat with five Frenclimen from the 
fort. From this party the^' learned that they were not as j'et dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the river in two canoes the ne.\t 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach tlie town tliat night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. Tliey plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the higli land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Chxrk's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward ia 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to in}' neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the oSicers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and inarched into the water without say- 
ino' a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on clieerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the liighest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 
least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or tJiree-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
rtirough the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met witii a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men ; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired eifect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until tliey were 


taken off by the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Manj would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

" This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up to town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-raen as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' "We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other,— which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
a half a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforceraent 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their bauds. Our fate was 


now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooability of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 

To the Inhabitants of Post Ylncennes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your tort this night, and not being- 
willing to surprise 3'ou, I take this method to request such of you 
as~iire true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. E. Clakk. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 


not a perfect level, but had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. "We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Eayley was ordered with li men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him. to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr, Hamilton surrendering liiraself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
terms of surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the " unanimity" 
of his officers iu the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this exjiedition, of its results,,of its importance, of the merits of 
thoseengagedinit, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than sufiice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followei's, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be.> 
longs to two men; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 


covered hy the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
was added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British cominis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. ^ 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 60 men up the river 
Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
Bi-itish boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
850,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Yincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town, Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White Kiver; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message to the Delawares, telling tliem that he would not accept 
their friendship or tveat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called <3f all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piaukeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 

glare's ingenious EUSE against the INDIANS. 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept tlie 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians S}- mpathizing with the British 
arrived thej- would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just been efiiected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
Cjoming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair-buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the famil}', tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fiftj' Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 


■ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejeaii and LaMothe, to 
"Williamsburg, Ya., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sura for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troojjs or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed w-hat a sav^age he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
awai'e of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President "Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 

The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the influence of this man, 
Clark could not have ol>tained the influence of thecitizens ateither 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clai-k's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 "Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "li toises, (me side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Yauoisj^, 
dud to two streets," — a vague description of land. 


Ool. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the" kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. Tlie regiment 
was ordered- to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, tiiongh 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
With an innate love of libertj', an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, lie overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as lie learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some inform.ation from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several motiths, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of afi:airs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant, Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to pai-ole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


rassed by his detention, being besieged by the inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Vigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 17T9 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements. Col. Todd 
issued a pi'oclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers wiio would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established by the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
17S3, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 17S7, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Hariner. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were iixveste/i 


with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 1842 liad been granted by the Piankeshaws to tlie French 
inhabitants of Vincennes. Accordingly a ver}"- convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on tlie 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British gari'ison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the Ijead of 30 men he marched to 
Vincennes, where his force was slightly increased. Fnun this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Waj-ne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 17S3, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1781 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Oliio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of theKas- 


kaskia, Post Yincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantitj'' not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised bjr Yirginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the ofiicers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
hira when the posts and of Kaskaskiaand Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorpofated 
into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length o'J 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Oliio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of thesaid States, Virginiaincluded, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and honafide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After "the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1781, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of I\ressrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after ISOO, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


government of the county was adopted. In 17S5 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Eufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 178i. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names ot 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emaijcipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 17S7, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New Yoi-k. On 
Jul^' 5, Kev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. lie had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America liisname stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came repi*esenting a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jeflerson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 
were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and evei-j section numbered 10 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the laud for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared tliat '' re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessarj to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his iinqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1Y87, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dora, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the ou-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " J^orthwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 17S7, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his ofHce he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to eflfect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 17S8, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted, Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Vincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the "Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 


Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and militarj' ofiBcers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Yin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 
follows : 

"Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept an}' book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By Frencli usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Aiige here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very soriy further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Yin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause. Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of iOO acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payrnents made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain liours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Vincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of ofiicers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of laud claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Kevolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Iiaintramek also received a fair share of praise for 
■ his judicious management of affairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on liis arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a Ljiig conversation with Gen. Ilarmar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Yirginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 600, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of tliat fort to Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Vincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at tliat post under command .of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave hina a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and GO regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemj' to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 


galiela, Hai'rison, Randolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, saj'ing that the defenseless condition of the counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstandmg all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They further stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and suffered, 
when you know a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the tem])orary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppi-ess the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
"War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- . 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed tlie Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Oaiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
wliicli his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of ^00 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions; The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post a"s tlie first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
accpiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. * « * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching: a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north hank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of tlie expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them froin the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side sliould meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
'bona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region we?c a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they afforded oxiacor \o Lostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the countr3^ 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head- waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Kecovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dying and the dead! 

tiEN. Wayne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned tlie office of Major-Gen* 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Uevolutionaiy war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training hiis 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
be moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive camoaiojn, every 


possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
JN'orthwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Haratramck, who still remained at Yincennes, succeeded , in con- 
cluding a general peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clrir's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force nnder Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Waj'ne July 26, 
1794-, and on the 2Sth the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American array gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of tlie field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as witliin 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectatoi's to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about SQ 


miles on each side of tlie JIauraee were destro^'ed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. 11, 1794, the army under Gen. Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami viIlao;es at the confluence of St. 
Jose] ill's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. lY, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Kov. 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Haintramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connecteii with military 
affiiirs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detacliment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1S05, when the Territory of Michigan 
Avas organized. 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Vincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18th century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at ■1,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wm. Henry Harrison, a native ot Virginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Wm. Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John Grifiin were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 


to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, ISOl. 

From this time to ISIO the principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Sliawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under tlieir masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding- States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the 'ierritory, 
elected bj^ a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1801, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1S04 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33° was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

When it appeared from the resnlt of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeholders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1801, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory, to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Vincennes Feb. 1 and 


-adopt measures for the organization of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritoi'y was set off, its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Yincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county ; Davis Floyd, of Clark county ; 
Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county. July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from-New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwes'tern Territory." It was commenced at Vincennes in 
1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1S04, was changed to the Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 


The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills: 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheeis; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,800; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury' too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: "We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the afi'airs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1S06 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory l^'ing west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were conflrined, 
and the new territory started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoj'ed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


Standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough for both parties to study out and understand them. The 
governtnent was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unktiown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; tliere seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversarj% accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no effect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the month of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by iine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Yin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jeflfersonville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed; the Indian 



was nearly always the sufferer. All along from ISO.7 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the eucroaclinients of the white 
people npoii the lands that belonged totliera. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said: "You 
call us children ; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between ns. They planted wliere they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

Tlie Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and (die state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Pems-f[uat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons ; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804:, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 






death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her outof the council- house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " Tlie Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — \_DUloii's History of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This really destroyed to some 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecumseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federac}^ He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped; I will no longer sufler it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erly love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the "Prophet" 
was designing, cunning and nnreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Yincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
.regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been efi'ected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a res. 

From 1805 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed tiiat 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned liis expedition and his followers had 


While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the oiiicials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter, offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with TO of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecumseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." "When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproaclied him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of oftense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. Tlie Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly wliether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort AVayne 
in 1S09, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brotlier, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the laud 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say tiiat they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save tliat piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in tlie course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce Jiim to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by the war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while you and I will have to fight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Tecumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not -be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment- 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed by this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a j^etition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian aflPairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was oeing organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "Tliis is the 
third j-ear that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. Tlie tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing tliemselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash^ne: consider well of it. "What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suffer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

"The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You are 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politelj received by Tecumseh, 
who repli^ to the Governor briefly that he should visit Yincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inliabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed liis militia — about 750 armed men^and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At tliis interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven ; that he had set the white 
■people an example of forgiveness, which tkey ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with liim, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followei-s, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of A^incennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
' at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov, Harrison was nearly 


rep.dy to march to the Prophet's town, several Indian cliiefs arrived 
at Vincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Yincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place' 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments, 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his jiossession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the "Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. "With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on tiie 
"Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 


and near this bank ran a small stream clothed with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than lialf that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled b}' two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of IMajor-General "Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Sj^encer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was fired b}^ the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiiuent, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in tliese companies suffered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemj' than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
sufl^ered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to march 
np to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode np he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major ^x) dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller forcethan was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
liis men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his 1st 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to ])revent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daj-light, which would 
enable him to make a general and eflFectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last eflbrt. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Oook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under fire of the enemy, and being there joined 


by the riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victorijously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 eflScient men, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Randolph, Bean and White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless b}' the Great Spirit. Being informed during the engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroj'ed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, waa 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American army returned to Yincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, lol2, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied b}' a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifie of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by the Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, bat only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecuinseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June IS, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1S12, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, liad command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of "500 Indians," had " broken their ranks" and reached 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, wliilehe 
concliided to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but tlie little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 

relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habits of 
aoi > 


intemperance rendered liim unfit for the command, was confined in 
the " black hole," while the junior oflicer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1S12, Harrison moved forward with his array to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next d.ay he reached a point within three 
milesof St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's tliey were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indiana 
offered their services as sjaies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians, he ascertained their number 
to be about 1.500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the solaiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were dainp; theywere dis- 
charged and reloaded; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered ; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort "Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, "the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort "Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers wlio had gathered around tlie fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1S19. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when tlie garrison was in a ratlier poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of the block-houses, 
whicli contained whisky, and the whites had great difficalty in pre- 
venting the burning: of all the barracks. The word "fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers and citizens' 
wives, wlio had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
■duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th°m. 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove off' all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations conimitted by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon lioost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful eff'ort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Vincennes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
Wm. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, inarched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 


cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and, equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrj'ing with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis "White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
nsual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the niglit. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. "With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. "Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known, 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indiau 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main armj' had resumed its retrograde inarch, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Eevolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About tlie same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry aud Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was com])elled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucliy militia, 


commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small comjDany 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zacliary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison J^ov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Vincennes as rapidly as i^ossible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the eueray, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1813 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 nren. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell malxhed from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited, by Delawares and 
Miamis This and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the supplies growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; bnt just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecnm- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river. He assured them that their 
people, in his power,' would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they, were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1S13, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomics, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1S13, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1S13, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 efiective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the mouth of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found the villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the eneni}', but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the- mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep tb.em- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns, 


The war with England closed on the 2ith of December, 1814:, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in ISll, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his i-esolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty whicli the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1S13, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Ivlr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Harpe township, 
Hancock county. 111., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 


If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
(greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnraseh will go down to posterity in 
the AVest as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the ISth century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has unifjrmly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecuraseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 

passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 


this part of the country; but Tecnraseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the inor§ practical and business affairs of military conquest, 
it is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sioijs of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowinfi^ that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep iu 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

"When he met Harrison at Yincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him ou 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched liimself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. - As soon as the 
Governor was through with tliis introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trumpet-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most Derfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustivje. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from che of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one flation; that if the United States 
would not give up the iands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; tjiey had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few yeai's they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
uribes had beeu driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
Avas done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian oi-ator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive ua- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate liis speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatoraies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing tlie interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him he lies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arras to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh. through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken np, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It wonld constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defease and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. Iso one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites . 
had informed him tliat Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in ofiice, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyaudots, Kickapoos, Fottawatomies, Ottawas and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with liiin and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of an}^ other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
•would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, apd each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed sirjns of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 


ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

" Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not au admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians^ 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victi ms to savage cruelty. I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: "It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good oflicers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to rnin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

During this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial 
Government veas declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this 3'ear the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Lidian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been officer of the army of the 
Revolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vincennes and entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 23, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said.' " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being, who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our affiiirs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy, * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 


good roads and liighways in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
^dmit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establisliing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

Tliis Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the ISTorth- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1S14, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fouglat in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTIES. White males of 21 and OTer. TOTAL. 

Wayne 1,225 6,407 

Franklin 1 ,430 7,370 

Dearborn 902 4,434 

Switzerland 377 1,833 

Jefferson-- 874 .. 4,370 

Clark 1,387 7.150 

Washiucton 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,050 6,975 

Knox 1,391 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,330 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 1,4.16 

■Perry 350 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,113 63,897 


The well-known ordinance of 17S7 conferred many "rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory ; every member of the Territorial House 
of Kepresentatives was required to hold, in his own riglit, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Grovernor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing ofiicers of the Territorial militia, Judges of tlie 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriifs, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among tlie several counties the members of tlie House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territoriariaw; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of sufirage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: "Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. Tills act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended tlie right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial dele^-ate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty-one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 181-1 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Representatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Vincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of tiie Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improveraentof the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 2Sth, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its. style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon'' s History of Indiana. 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Wm. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Eepresentatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: " The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten m our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efiiciency to its 
measures and stabilitj' to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government * * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plau of education as 
prescribed by the constitution, -s * * X recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
eflectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 



persons of color legally entitled to their freedom; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Robert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the eneni}-; and by 1820 tlie State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period lS25-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, tlie crops were generally good 
and the liopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Gi-overnor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there stiil lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outi-ages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the gi-aves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on ^the Wabash, felt as sad as 
^schines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent ISTas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best eiforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning. May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 

of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 

account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 

approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 

alarm soon spread throughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 

Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 

commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 

Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 

dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 


make a call npon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery', and various otlier gallant spifits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately' to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Imag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that slie did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not au Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
Lis wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, hiinus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifierence, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that " discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise nest morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fear? of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the '' Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, tlie guards were paraded on the green 
where Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evolu- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafaj'ette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who, after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arras! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got i'lto the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, ho put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 2S, 1S33, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little array, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Tliursday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the iOth Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 34-0 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and W^arren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return. They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew "W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difHculty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 15 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gua 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed wltli the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the nioment- 
ai'il}' expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the "Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of "Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts ; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During J^iis time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into "Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1S37, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George ProfSt, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
naj, Nebash, Nas-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 183S. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. Tliey 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes J;hat were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast waiTior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as tliey passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 


canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from diiferent points on their journey; and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west of the 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body? 
which granted the request. The Secretary of War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treat}'; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their cAaim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian ageut, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by tlie early Indianians, we cite tlie following instances 
from Cox's '' Recollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 2i, 1824, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon com.paring numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been oftered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase laud 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 

of his voice, "Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 


murdering and scalping all before them!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
"There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Kappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more Recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid oflT 
a town, to which they gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called " New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was " in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Eappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the j-ear 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of prpper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriet}'. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: 

" That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

" 1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, playmates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked; or, 

" 3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked, Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply. Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

"2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerit}^ and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a sj'stem, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 


During the administration of Gov. Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patnotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1S46, must be sought for as far back as the year 1S30, when the 
l^resent State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1S30, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1S30. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,000 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1836, having with a force ot 


500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refu_^e to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on tlie banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Republic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Repulilic all the hostilities of an 
Important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July 4, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
Genera] Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President oi-dered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river iSTueces and the Rio Grande rjver, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore. General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On the 26tli of April, tlio Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Taj'lor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Eio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander. Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
liad now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supJDlies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
cbief forces, twenty-tliree hundred men, to the- defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the StH of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn np in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very efi"ective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion. General de la Yega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed tlie Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. Tliis 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 1846, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1S16 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan. General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which^ he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In jSTovember, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Yictoria, 
the capital of Taraaulipas, and nearly at the same period, 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremont, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the whole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By tlie drawing off of a large part of 
General Ta^-lor's troops for a meditated attack on Yera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now inarching upon him, nnder command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Yista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven liundred and fifty-nine, and liere, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued neai'ly the wliole day, when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and tlius abandoned the region of 


the E,io Grande to the complete occupation of onr troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Vera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 1847, 
General Scott landed near the city with an ai"my of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18th commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost mcessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Amei-icans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the Stli of April the 
army commenced their march. At Cerro Gordo, Santa Aima had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the IStli the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
IStli of August within ten miles of Mexico,' a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras. Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the cit3', or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapultepec was Buccessfully 


stormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable objeGt of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, ISiS, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Rio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him tlie Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider tlie conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander. Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a st&te of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
"Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Xueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
I'elinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4:th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1S17, and on the 16tli elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jeffersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
■which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Eegiment 
U. S, Itrtillery, the 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo de Ovegas, August 10, 1S47; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12tli of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Mataraoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and24tli; Guerrilla Ranehe, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 1848; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February i9th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 184S; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Yera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger iind more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliatioii aud chastisemeat of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
Northwestern Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ray to the Legislature of 1828: " Since 
our last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the Amei'ican people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
tall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
ISTational Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscnpliou 
npon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty. Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
NoETH, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 



Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Republicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the liepublicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
witliout a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
liepresentatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaiing that they were no 
longer Senators; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided tliat, although the Democratic members had resigned 
there was a quorum of the de facto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 


The events of the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Kepublic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States: to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave — a civil defiance of Ihe 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll ot honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 
The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 
April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 
the welcome message to Washington : — 

Executive Department op Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 18G1. J 
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States: — On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, I tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
"War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1S61 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 




The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purpo ses 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, aud for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandmeut of the magnificent 
corps (V armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1834, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end ia 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, tlieir zeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw tliem away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his ua- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have. a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

No: dear as freedom is — and, In my heart's 

Just estim.T,tion, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 76,000 men, 


answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,6S3 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1S60. On the 16th of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis "Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
ajjolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose tq^the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75.000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days — re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — -are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State oftered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1831, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messi-s, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to resti'ain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the Capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
da3's later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a note of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ra}' of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three days after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 



iraents, notwitlistanding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as "The 
First Brigade, Indiana Yolunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectively 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh " " " " Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth " " « " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " R. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " " T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and tlie entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staff: John Love, Major; Cyrus C- 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinion has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, Jul}' 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor : — 

"Governor O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Governor: — I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. McClellast, 
Major-Oeneral, U. 8- A. 

On the returi\ of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing enlogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

" Soldiers ! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career he as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Mafris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20 th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1862, for three 
years' service under Col. "W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Regiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 11th Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser. 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,131 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The IStii Regiment, reorganized at La Fa^'ette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the llth 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. "Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1862, and during the 
first days of Januar}', 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th Jane, 
1S64, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Eegiment, organized under Col. P. A. Hackleman at 
Kichmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C., on the Mth 
of May, 1862. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of luka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service. May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 1865, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12tli of June, 1861, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under G^n. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into thi-ee years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
186tt, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July, 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the fi'ont at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve days later. Throughout aJ its iirilliant actions from Hat- 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1866, 


including tlie saving of the United States ship Congress, at N"ew- 
port News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, lS65,and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 21sT Regiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. Mcililhm, July 21, 1801, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was tlie first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on tlie 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the loth of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29tli July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandmeut at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 21, 1805, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented tlie gallant survivors. 

The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important aiFairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three j'ears under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During tlie war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 1S6.5, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

TJie 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1S61, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may bo said to 
disband the 18th of September, 1865, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Hegiment, uuder Ool. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
Octuber was allied to Gen. Banks' army. Froui Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28tii or 1st Gavalet was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20 th of August, 1S61, uuder Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a. 
few rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching CamjD JSTevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Kosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Tvvent3'--ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 1861. At Shiloh, Ool. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the reduction of Fort Donelson on the 
13th, llth, and 15th of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Slieridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Rbgiiient of Germ.yn Infaxtky, under Col. August 
Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24tli of August, 

1861, served with distinction throughout the campaign. Col. 
Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, andLieut- 
Col. Henry Von Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in. 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1861, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy tlie position, so l'»ng in 
Southern hands, of Riugold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th ok First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 

1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862. to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June. 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 


The 36th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service for three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Sliiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized the 18th of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the. eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1862, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
SOtli of Jul^', 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 38th Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the loth of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the ISth of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 89rH Regiment, ok Eighth Cavaxet, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it tookaconsj)icuous partin all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds wliich men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
hap]iy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 4:0th Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Leaming, was organized on the 30 th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front,wliere some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1S62, it joined in Buell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Regiment ok Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 18G2, and at Pea 
Eidge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In Mav, 186-i, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 4:2d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the priucipal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace, Mission Kidge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The "ISd Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute en route to 
the front within a few days. Later it was al'ied to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1865. 

The 41:TH or the Eegiiient of the 10th Congeessional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 2J:th of October, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After 3'ears of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the llth of September, 1865. 

The 45th, oe Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1S61- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1865. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1S62, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's array, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as trulj' worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4lh of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. E. Slack, early 
in October, 1S62. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's armj'; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor ilorton and the people. Keturn- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received liis commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Me- 
Laughton ; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Eegijient, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiei-s in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th JRegijient, organized at Jeffersouville, under Col. J. "W. 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1S61, for service, 
left enrvute for the camp at Bardstowu. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried ofl" a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on maay 


a well-foiight field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50th Regiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left en route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1865. 

The 51sT Eegiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the llth of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great efiect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a partici]jator in the 
woj-k of the Fourth Corps, or Array of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53ed Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54th Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D.G.Rose, The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized lor one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1863 at New Orleans. 

The 65th liEGiiiENx, organized for three montlis' service, retains 
the brief history applicable to the first organization of the 54th. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. E,. 
Mahon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Kegiment, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J. M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
alread}^ volunteered into other regiments. Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel,— the Rev. I. W. T. McMullen and Eev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Ilayn'es, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, "Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization. Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the 18th it left en rouie to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized hj distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on tlie I7tli of July, 1865. 

The 60th Regimknt was partially organized under Lieut. -Col. 
Eichard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the i-emaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the of March, 1865. 

The 61sT was jiartially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and oflicers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regimknt failed in organization as an artilleiy corps; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65Tn was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once en 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was on the ISth and 20tli of February, 
18C5, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th REOiiiEXT partially organized at New Albany, under 
Conimaudaut Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1S62, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1S65, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Eegijient was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1S62, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a terra of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
few days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to au enviable historj- extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69rH Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th of August, 1S62, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After au exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the held in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion nnder Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1S62, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors cf Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

Tiie 71sT OR Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the ISth of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen otficers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was ye-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 2Sth of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the loth of September, 1865, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, a.nd left en roitte 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73uD Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1882, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together witli the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9th of June, 1865, at Washington. Ou the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, onthe2Ist of August, 1862, for the 
front, under Col. I. W. Petit. It was tlie first regiment to enter 
TuUahoma, and one of the last engaged iu the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

Tlie 76th Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavm^ for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, '■' The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and oflicers killed and wounded. Tlie regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862; and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
infiuence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


Oil the 13th June, 1865, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The 82nd Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th August, 1SG2, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
lit Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83ed Regiment, of Lawrencebui'g, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, the fact of its being 
under fire for a t<ital term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1S65, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84tu Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th Sei)tember, 1862, under Colonel Nelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well-contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the ith March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate affair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it su,rreiidered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1862, under Colonel OrvilleS. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84:th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the 15th 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 87th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and Perryville on the 6th and Sth of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 2oth of November, 1863, 
thence through the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a , true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The BSth Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the -Ith of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, oe Fifth Cavalet, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a iirst and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of J une, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91sT Battalion, of seven companies, .was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 


Gen. Sherman's. On the liili of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on Vicksbiirg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to tlie storming of Fort Blakely on the 9th of April, 1865. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, tliat year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The QIth and 95th Regiments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Kegiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Regiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terra Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 311 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 1864-. 

The 98th Regiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 100th Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 



into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 18G2. The regiment participated in 
twenty-five battles, together with skirmishing during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at "Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the llth of June, 1865. 

The lOlsT Eegiment was mustered into service at Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. "William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavahy, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in Jul}', and reported at North Vernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on tlie 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from "Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered oat one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The lOiTH Regiment of Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, LaFayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H. Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the ISth of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam, Wayue, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Re- 
turning on the ISth of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and otiicers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1S63. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The 108th Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county, 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R, 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Latayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Yernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out ou the 17tli of 
July, 1863. 

The 113th Regiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Wasliington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and tile under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks 
of John II. Morgan's forces. 

The 114th Hegiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the affair of North 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

six-months' regiments. 

The 115th Eegiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the I7th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. AVillcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24:tli of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of Februarj'', 1864, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14tli of Februaiy, 1864. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col. Jolin 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and iile numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arras. General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Your General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of tliese troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120th Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for tliree years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete,' and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Hovej^, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the gi-eat battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121sT, OE Ninth Cavalet, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, .was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of Maj' it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a higli character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 3S6 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1S65, was hailed with jo}', and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Regiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Regiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of lS63-'64:, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1864, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last j'ears of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 124th Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the Sth of May, 
1864, under General Schofield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
canipalgn, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, or Tenth Cavalet, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later iii the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain GafFney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad. May, 1864, lost 
five men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 


surpassed for its utility aud character it was disembodied at Viclcs- 
burg, Mississippi, on the 31st August, 1S65, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 126th, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 1S64, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a very conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted aud assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, aud thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19th September, 1865. 

The 127th, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, aud perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864. Reaching the 
front in Maj', it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1S6J-. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Scliolield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Dal ton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville. 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 128th until August 29, 1865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left e)i route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DecemDer, 1865. 

The 131st, or Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on the 30tb of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magniiicent 
delense of Himtsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Bnford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the ISth of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for one hun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of tiie war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slaver}' within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed Tlie Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Kegiment, under Col. S. C. Yance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Frantlin and Danville, and leaving on 
the IStliof May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Eegiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R.. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The I 34th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of Maj, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W. 0. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesviile, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence cotinties, left en route to Tennessee on the 
28tb of May, ISGl, having completed organization the day previous. 

The 138th Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139th Regiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, Elizaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Vevay, New 
Albany, Metatnora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious liistory of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 


The 140th Regiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of Februaiy, 1865, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1st Regiment was only partially raised, audits few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col. Brady's command. 

Tbe 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparet, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
d of November, 1S64. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 


Was answered by Indiana in the most material terras. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 


The 14iTii Eegiment, under Col. G. "W. Riddle, was mustered in 
on the 6th March, 1S65, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August. 1865. 

The 145th Regiment, under Col. W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the ISth of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadmau's division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The IJtGth Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11th of March eii route to Harper's Ferry, where it was as- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1S65. 

The 117th Regiment, compi-ised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1865, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 116th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 14:8th Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 38th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
■final discharge. 

The 149th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regimunt, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on- the 9tli of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151st Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14tli a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1865. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 

^i^' i,jiL 



W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the IStliof March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 151x11 Regiment, organized under Col. Frank "Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Yirginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
compaiiies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4tli of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156x0 Battalion, under Lieut. -Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 

independent cavalry company of INDIANA VOLFNTEEKS. 

The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25th of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 



The 2STn Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited tlirough- 
■out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut. -Colonel Charles S. 
Russell, left Indianapolis for the front on the 24th of April, 1S64-. 
The regiment acted very Tvell in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy. In the battle of 
the " Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas H. Logan. 
Daring the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the Sth of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 

batteries of light artillery. 

First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1862 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the Sth at Pea Ridge, the batterj' performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche countiy, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its eflicacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancj', vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


•whicli may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1S64, when 
Genera] Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in Octo.ber, 1801, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., lS6i, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battekt was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29tii, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns. It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6tli of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawreuceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Eatteey, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the front on the 26th of February, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
"Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies witli 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The XixTH Batteet. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1S63, under Capt. 
K. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in tlie aflairs 
of Sliiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Eapids, Mansnra, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Jolinson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in Januaiy, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1861:, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
I7th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to the capture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1865. 

TJie Twelfth Battery was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 



was occupied in the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided effectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1S65, and 
were discharged the day following. 

The FouETEENTH Battery, recruited in "Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. H. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1862, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Batteey, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 2J:th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Naylor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
"Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated in the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5th of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Batteey, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferrj', July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1865. 

The Eighteenth Batteey, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the cam- 
paign until 1863, when, under Gen. Rosencrans, it appeared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's array, it returned to Indianapolis. Keaehing that city on 
the 6th of June, 1865, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the ITth of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn,- turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-fikst Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in nnmerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Batteey was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers oY. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


The TwENTT-THiRD Batteet, recruited in October 1862, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Oapt. I. H. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very eificient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, I860, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged ou the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty nutil the 13th of March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The TwENTY'-FiFTH Batteey was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wildee's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1861; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 


Locality. No. of Battles. Locality. No, of Battles. 

Virginm 90 Maryland 7 

Tennessee .51 Texas 3 

Georgia 41 South Carolina 2 

Mississippi 24 Indian Territory 2 

Arkansas 10 Pennsylvania 1 

Kentucky 16 Ohio , , 1 

Louisana 15 Indiana 1 

Missouri 9 

North Carolina 8 Total 308 

The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Eepublic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by- 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rnshed to arms in defense of all for which their lathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to the Republic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from lS61-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the official reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe wliich, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial rain of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of wliich the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured hj the standard of previous wars, not a single, 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelity, courage or efficiency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. "Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session, Gov, Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to tlie U. 
S, Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 


ing the Congressional representation in any State in which thera 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a JBoard of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city couneil. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Republicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government Iiad a right to interfere with the question of sufl'rage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suiFrage, etc. ; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1868 Indiana jiresented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 


^, ,;..jii:ilil,^lilllllitl 


commission reported that Sil3,599.4S were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had atforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered SQ children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1S70 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adulterj^ 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years, i. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to 8-0,000. It was 
thought that a sufiScient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated Said the Governor: "It will be oppressive if the 
State^ after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign. 
naent of the evidences of existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of tlie bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures -which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 
the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 
the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 


had prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on tlie State banli and its branches. An abnormal 
state of aiFairs liice this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an " unwise administration." 

Durinof the first 16 j-ears of this eenturj% the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent liigh price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three years.. This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a hopeful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the "agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In lS22-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 


of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, hovfever, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, but eventually proved remu- 

Noah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1S31 
to 1S37, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1S32 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1S57. At the time of its organization in 1S34, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemj^tion of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured hj the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more tlian ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Wiiitcomb, lS43-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by vv'hich, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. "Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1S4S, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1S51 a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

la 1857 tlie charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Rebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other JSTorthern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1S71, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within tlie State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 

19S HisTOKT OF i:ndiana. 

Bee what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It pi'obably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, o,6Si, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,402; 
'capital employed, is $117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were onlj' live years 
previousl}', at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
ws consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. , 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $3,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for .us further 
to burden these pages with tables or cohiraus of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all these and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1S26 Governor Ray considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an ecjual financial footii.g 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana wei-e interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western- 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed tlie task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13J per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
854,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to tji^e 



Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: ""With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Eoard of Public "Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway', for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the "Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidl}- forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the "Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. "Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
" to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with, 
those of the "Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


without engaging an Engineer-in-Chief for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation ; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrencebnrg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
iwork was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
teavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then' proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of infernal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1S37, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon ''over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never he 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told them that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of the most sauguine, and that the flattering auspices of tlie 
future were sufficient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efibrts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and in his last message he exclaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * « * The 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinctiouj 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed §3,827,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The Ave per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 1S3S, 
to about §i5,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of atfairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. "When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on tlie State debt without increasing tlie rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1810 the sj-stem embraced ten ditFerent works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabasii & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embi-aced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14-,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 18-il were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, lS-11, 
which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in lengtli, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76^ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. Tiie Central canal, from the Wabasli & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at MunQietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046 ; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,303, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indianan- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

I. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Road finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vi'ncennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

II. Jeffersonville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


and glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of which 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1S69 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1S70. The subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Aoril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also tine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral " 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of ihis 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philantliropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for tlie appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'S, 
bj' David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 3'ears previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1S53, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marr^'ing negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and tliey didn't 
have time to consider tlie scheme proposed by the white people" — 
• W. W. Clayton. 

In 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with tlie State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rit}', and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 


The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties iWarren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, ' 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 1-i distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, tlie average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4J cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being S,0S0. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of tlie hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of tlie mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1S71 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81^ to 83^ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and soutliern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful,' jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking- coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous througliout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perr}', Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many larye kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act autliorizing the organization 
o£ county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement ofagriculture, adopting a consti- 
tiition and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper ofiicers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall ofl"er annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural andhousehold manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and imjirovements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
■were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing Justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 1872 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1S73, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 miles of raih-oad, not counting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or IS months one can go from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field) 
450 of which contain block coal, the best in the United States for 
manufacturing pur])oses. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " Ey .the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. /The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be_ $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 6,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

''What we want in this country is diversified labor.'' 

The grand liall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two storie's high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus aftording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 


approaclied by three wide stairwa\-s, accommodates tlie fine art, 
musical and otlier departments of liglit meclianics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. Wright, 
lS52-'4; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1835; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, lS36-'8; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-60; D. P. Holloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
ISTO-'l; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, lS67-'9; Stearns Fisher, 1864-'6; 
John Sulherland, 1872-'4:; Wm. Grim, 1875. Secretaries: JohnB. 
Dillon, 1852-'3,1855, 1858-'9; Ignatius Brown, lS56-'7; W.T. Den- 
nis, lS5i, 1860-'l; W.H. Loomis, 1862-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l; Alex. Heron, lS72-'3. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1S53; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859; Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$1,651 in 1852 to $15,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7^1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force- blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world ; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was rained 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beeclier was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not only as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Fanner and Gardener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, fioriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. V. Culley, Heuben 
Eagan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Ratliff, Joshua Liiidley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the ball of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won b^' Reuben Ragan, of Pntnam countj^, for 
an a])ple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

Bat when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1S60, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loomis, of Marion county. Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1S61, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the " State Fruit Committee," and twentj'-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 1864 there was but little done, on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the grgat war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good woi'k, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave, and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Societ3'''s transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the ofhce of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State tair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 siiows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to this time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and dift'usiiig annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the office of corresponding secretary was discontinued; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1S75 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. , 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1S<30 to 1875 was 1,225. 


The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of tlie 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Semiiuxry, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminar}' at Bloomijigton, supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
thougli tills is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for school purposes were elected through tlie State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
Very l^est men; and although, of course, manj^ blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. Tiie first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became tlie property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse thaa nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


lialf finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire scliool law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of office. Hon. 
W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufficiently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many " unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teaclier, while 
there might not be a sufficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were autliorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1851 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to §2,460,000. Tliis amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of tlie State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1851: was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Beport (for ] S77-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantial and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 



of School 

No of 



Am't Paid 


in D:iy3. 


at School. 








$ 239.924 
































The increase of school population during the past ten jears has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 592,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 

Sept.l,18fi9 17,699 May 1, 187-1 13,923 

" 1,1870 9,063 " 1,1875 13,373 

" 1,1871 . 3,101 " 1,1876 11,494 

" 1,1872 , 8,811 " 1,1877 15,476 

May 1, 1873 (8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 4,447 

Total, 1878 699,153 

No. of white males 354,271; females 333,033 687,304 

" " colored " 5,937 ; " 5,913 11,849 


Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the scliools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 503,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend pai-ochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: "As 
long as the scliools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
daj's and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools in his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1S78 was 9,380, in 
all but 3i of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probablj' surpasses tliat of any other 
State in this respect. 

Tlie average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, §1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $3.29. 

In 1878 tliere were 89 stone school-houses, 1.724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana |8,4.37,.593.47 Michicran $3,500,314.91 

Ohio 6,614,816.50 Missoiiri 3,535,352.53 

Illijiois 6,348,538.33 Minnesota 2,471,199.31 

New York 3,880,017.01 "Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274,581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17,866.55 

Common-school fund, 1,666,'^34.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinkiug fund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068.73 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 3,281,076.69 uted 100,165.92 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land ftmd 42,418.40 

sinnal township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1878 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 


have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "saline" fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working tliem to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the sane act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war a,nd the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 12^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tas finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. " Sinking " fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental e.xpenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest- bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 


7. AH fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to the credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,1:18.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that earl}' settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson count}', granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNaraee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee. Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a uniTOrsity 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1S22, and in 1825 liad the satisfaction of being 
present at the inaugui'ation of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academ}-," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophj' and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1S2S the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the diflereiit departments; Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof of mathematics and natural philosophy; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until ISoi, when it was destroyed by fire, p-ud 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, simply and truly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, witli ^vings each 38 feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty mirabers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in lS79-'80, 183; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Sectioit -4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning r.s are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. Tiiat the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

"First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminislied, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold, and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supjjosed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted b}' mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands snail be selected from those "which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroa'3 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. ISTo State shall be entitled to tlie benefits of this act 
unless it ■ shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution ; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 186.5, the Legislature accepted the conditions of the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1S67, for 8212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $±00,000, and is invested in U. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100- acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which 86-| acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-house is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front b}' 6S feet deep. The dormitoiy is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University,'R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than tlie boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
cientlj' large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Kichard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of anew building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposa' 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $.37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $33,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $1,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations, Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a year, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds,^if necessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1S74, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a flrst-cla&s 
university course, namely: in the school of tatural science — 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and pi-actical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, lS74-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography. United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, together with the liigher 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from tlie following 
facts, taken from tlie official reports: out of -il persons who lia.d 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
schpol service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school wlio 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of tliemselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of tlie rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of tlie school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the studeut's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity witJi, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1S73, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadily, until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completel}' furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorough, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large numberof finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efliciency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this Avork has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and development is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proj)rietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
• day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
"denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


Notre Datne University, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of tlie most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of tlie world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Ashury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1S35, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokorao, and 
was founded in 1869. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Meroin,was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore^s Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

£^arlha?n''s College, a.t Hichmoud, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wahash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 


Hartsville University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, -was 
founded in 1S54, and in 1S72 had seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, tlie first effort was made by James M. Ray, 
about 181:6. Through his eftbrts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The "Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long b}' 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 


k\^)JiMltnl,ii,iiiili,iilii,iiiil u>' 


tlie Corintliian style, while each wing is simihirly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and tlie former are molded after tlie principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. Tlie fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances Cundilf, Dallas JMewland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Kachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and jihys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows: 

1. Tlie school year commences the first Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 j-ears of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or nnsoniid persons, or confirmed immoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

i. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to ■ 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where lie or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pu]iil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate tlie subject 
was William Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretar3' of State, ex-officio,and Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Duiilap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. The}' rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in lS4i; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was iminediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-'70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a facade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, tlie pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
nre known as the " rear building " contains the cha])el and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in tlie immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Wni. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclutire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of lS32-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would have been 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1S37, 
intensified bj the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 1842 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
eiForts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and hospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 1844, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appeai-ance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624: feet. The central building is live stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of tlie superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
in the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, emploj^es' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of tliis again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the "State 
Prison South," located at Jeffersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1S21. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Capt. 
^Yestover, a,fterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an aifray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
K. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
luilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as tlie " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
siiops, together with the prisoners' garden, or ]>leasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and un ventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1S57 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 

240 UISTOET OF I^'DI^^'A. 

to tlie inainifactiire of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company' was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley, In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard, 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kenned}', the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Kodifei-, better known as "The Ploosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptui'ed and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, ibis year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jeffersonville prison were transported northward to 
'Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
sonville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation wliich in this State attained telling . 
proportions in 1S69, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of tliat body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

"Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

" 1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such iufant, and- for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

"2. "When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vacjrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

" 3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another 850,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1S73. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6tli of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State pvisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for "Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 


rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31, 1879, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct- of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution. Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1S68- 


three family houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 tha 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
his wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectivel}', and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
ofiices and five dormitories for ofiicers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved eflicient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 





Geology — General Description — Topography — Drainage 
— Lisi' OF Fossils — Economic Geology — ARCH.i:oLOGY. 

USH COUNTY has an area of twenty-three miles, 
north and south, by eighteen miles, east and west; 
equal to 414 square miles; and, according to a recent 
report of the Bureau of Statistics, has 255,315 acres of 
land returned for taxation. The aggregate taxable 
property is given as $12,473,020, which, considering that 
it has no large city within its limits, ranks it as one of 
the very wealthiest counties in the State. Its -per capita 
wealth of $652.18 is second to but one county. 

It is bounded on the west by Shelby and Hancock counties, on 
the north by Hancock and Henry counties, on the east by Fayette 
and Franklin counties, and on the south by Decatur County. 

The title of the Delaware Indians to the territory comprising 
Rush County was ceded to the United States, by treat}^ at St. Mary's, 
October 2 to 6, 1S18. The United States' surveyors completed 
their work July 23, 1819, and April 29, 1820, and the land was 
offered to purchasers October i, 1S20, at the Brookville land office. 
Up to the year 1822, the land embraced in Rush County, was at- 
tached to Franklin County for judicial purposes. This year the 
countv was organized and the first County Commissioners' Court 
convened on the first Monday in March. The count}' was named, 
at the suggestion of Dr. Wm. B. Laughlin, Government surveyor, 
in honor of the famous Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia. June 
17, 1822, the county seat was located, and, by July 29, following, 
the town was surveyed and lots offered for sale, thus showing that 
push and energy of the early settlers which still characterizes their 

Rushville, the county seat, is beautifully situated on the right 
bank of Big Flat Rock River, near the center of the countjr, thirtj.'- 

*Adapted to this volume from the State Geologist's Report for 18S3, by Moses N.Elrod, M. D. 


six miles east, and eleveh miles south of the Circle Park of the State 
Capital, and is thirtv-nine and three-tenths miles by rail from Indian- 
apolis. It is a handsome city of 4,000 inhabitants, and is rapidly 
growing in wealth and population. The south, and business part, 
of the city, including the court house, is located on the river terrace, 
above high water mark; the residence part of the city lies to the 
north, on the low uplands, and contains manj' fine buildings and 
highly ornamented front yards. The streets are wide and regular, 
smoothly graveled, paved, lighted with gas and lined with beautiful 
maple shade trees. The water supply is drawn from inexhaustible 
wells. The city government is complete, with a uniformed police 
force, fire department, and everything to indicate a thriving, vigor- 
ous town. 

Carthage, on Big Blue River, the second place in point of size 
in the county, is a good town of 600 inhabitants, surrounded by a 
fine agricultural region. Milroy is the third town in size, and, since 
the completion of the Vernon, Greensburg & Rushville Railroad, 
has grown rapidly. Its location, nearly equidistant between Greens- 
burg and Rushville, and a good farming communit}- supporting it, 
promise well for its future. Moscow, Richland, New Salem, and 
Raleigh are thriving, pleasant villages, off the railroad lines. Ma- 
nilla, Homer, Marcellus, Glenwood, Falmouth, Gings, and Arlington 
are railroad villages, of three hundred inhabitants and less. They 
are active trading and shipping marts, the outgrowth of the com- 
mercial wants of the finest farming and pasture lands in the world. 

Rush County is well supplied with railroads, all centering and 
crossing at Rushville. The Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis 
Railroad runs through the central part of the county, from the east 
to the northwest; the Cambridge Branch of the Jeffersonville, Mad- 
ison & Indianapolis Railroad (forming a connecting link in the 
"Pan-Handle sj'stem"), crosses the county from the southwest to 
the northeast; the Vernon, Greensburg & Rushville Railroad 
(a branch of the " Big Four," Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & 
Chicago Railwa}^) and the Louisville Branch of the Cincinnati & 
Fort Wayne Road, traverse the center of the county, from north 
to south. 

All pikes and other roads leading out of Rushville are graveled 
to the out townships, and many of them to the adjoining count}^ 
lines. The experiment of building free pikes is being tested in 
some parts of the county. The ordinar}' dirt roads are good, espec- 
ially for Indiana, and in summer nothing could be much nicer, but 
in winter they are fearfully muddy. I was struck with the almost 
total absence from the road side of the rank and vile weeds so 
commonly seen in a neighborhood of slovenly farmers. 




Cincinnati, Hamilton &" Indianapolis Railroad. 

Miles from p^j^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^,^g elevations were taken. nhnvforpnn 

Indianapolis. above ocean. 

32.3 Arlington 933 

Little Blue River bridge, grade level 927 

Little Blue River, bed of stream 9'^5 

Mud Creek, bed of stream 945 

34.9 Brandon 955 

Summit 1, 016 

39.4 Rushville, level of grade 9S3 

Flat Rock River, bed of stream 957 

44.3 Farminglon I, 045 

45.4 Griffin 1 , 062 

47.4 Glenwood (Vienna) ijOg^ 

Cambridge Branch of yrffersonville, Madison iSr" Indianapolis Railroad. 

Miles from Feet 

Columbus, Points at which the elevations were taken. above 

Indiana. ocean. 

Columbus Depot, base of rail 642 

23.S6 Shelbyville crossing Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago Railroad. 779 

County line, Shelby and Rush, base of rail 905 

32. S6 Manilla, base of rail 907 

Mud Creek bridge, base of rail 922 

Mud Creek, bed of stream goS 

35.11 Homer, base of rail 923 

37.72 Goddard's Station, base of rail 95- 

39.79 Summit of grade, base of rail ' I, 002 

42.19 Rushville station, base of rail 979 

Crossing Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis Railroad, base of rail 9S3 

Flat Rock River bridge, base of rail 9S3 

Flat Rock River, bed of stream - 9^^ 

Turkey Creek bridge, base of rail 1,002 

Turkey Ceeek, bed of stream 976 

48.31 Ging's Station, base of rail. 1.013 

49.6S McMillan's Station, base of rail 1.025 

Plum Creek bridge, base of rail i , 029 

Plum Creek, bed of stream 1,016 

52. 68 Falmouth, base of rail I, 061 

55.12 Highest point on Cambridge Branch, base of rail i, 084 

63.20 Cambridge City, junction Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railway 952 

Vtrnon, Greettsburg or" Rushville Railroad. 

Miles from d • . » u- u »u 1 •■ i 1 „ Feet 

^ , Points at which the elevations were taken. , 

Greensburg. above ocean. 

Greensburg Depot, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago Railroad.. 954 

8.8 Williamstown, county line 954 

Little Flat Rock Creek bridge 95S 

Little Flat Rock Creek, bed of stream 935 

1 1. 8 Milroy 963 

15.3 Bennett's , 982 

19.0 Big Flat Rock River bridge 951 

19.5 Rushville junction with Cambridge Branch Jeffersonville, Madison & Indian- 

apolis Railroad 955 


The striking geological facts bearing on the topography and 
surface conliguration of Rush County, deduced from the above tables 
and others before published in connection with the Geological Sur- 
vey of Indiana, is the limitation of a part of the western border or 
crest of the ancient upheaval of the bed of old ocean that has given 
origin to the Cincinnati arch of the Lower Silurian rocks. The west- 
ern border of the Cincinnati arch can be readily traced from the 
summit, near Pearceville, in Riplej' County, north through McCo3-'s 
Station and Clarksburg, in Decatur Count}^ through Richland and 
Noble townships. Rush County, thence, north on the boundarj- line, 
and through the western part of Fayette County. The summit of 
the crest, one and one-half miles east of Glenwood (Vienna), taken 
at the natural level of the surface of the countr}', has an elevation 
of 1 1 16 feet above tide water, which ranks it in altitude as the 
second highest point 3'et reported south of Indianapolis, and second 
only to the celebrated Weed Patch Knob of Brown County, which 
has an altitude of 11 73 feet above the ocean. 

The next highest point (1084) reported in this connection, is 
taken at the base of the rail on the Canibridge Branch Railroad, 
two and a half miles northeast of Falmouth. This line of eleva- 
tion is not a high ridge in the sense of an abrupt elevation above 
the common level of the countr}'; the so-called hills of Fayette, 
.Union and Franklin counties are realj^ not hills, the unevenness of 
the countr}' being due to valleys cut below the surface. The top 
of the Lower Silurian outcrop in Indiana, in its early history-, was a 
level plain. From the western border of this arch or plain the 
land falls away in a gradual slope to the west, and so gradual is 
the descent that it is not noticed by the casual observer. A refer- 
ence to the table of altitudes, however, shows a marked difference 
in the elevations on the east and west sides of the county. The 
Glenwood summit, it will be seen, is 159 feet above the bed of Flat 
Rock River, at Rushville, and more than 100 feet above the com- 
mon level of the country in the central part of the county. From 
Rushville, west, to the bed of Beaver Meadow Creek, the descent 
is eighty-eight feet, equal to a difference of 221 feet between the 
summit and the bed of the creek last mentioned. The Falmouth 
summit is loi feet higher than Rushville, and 179 feet higher than 
the base of the rail at the point where the Cambridge branch 
crosses the Shelb}'' and Rush county line. The elevations on the 
Vernon, Greensburg & Rushville Railroad show that there is but 
one foot difference between the level of Williamstown, at the Deca- 
tur County line, and the junction with the Jeffersonville, Madison & 
Indianapolis Railroad, and that the highest point on the road 
(Bennett's Station) is twenty-seven feet above Rushville. Two 


and a half miles west of the Rushville depot, on the Cambridge 
Road, the top of the grade is t\vent3'-six feet higher than at the 
depot, and on the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis road the 
difference is twent}- feet. 

Stretching away to the west, on a gentle slope, rests the broad 
and fertile acres of Rush County. Over the surface of an other- 
wise level expanse of country are short, low ridges, and slight 
mounds of gravel and sand, intermingled with a greater per cent, 
of clay. None of these elevations exceed twenty feet above the 
common level, and very few of them reach that figure — there is 
just enough rise and fall of ridge or mound to reheve the eye of 
the monotony of a dead sameness. An apparent exception to the 
above is seen in Anderson and Orange townships, where portions 
of the country' are cut into bluffs and valleys by Big Flat Rock 
River and its tributary creeks and branches. 

Drainage. — The western border of the Lower Silurian (Cincinnati 
arch) , besides its bearing on the topography of the count}', determines 
the course of its rivers and creeks, causing those east of the border, 
or divide, in Richland and Noble townships, to flow into the White 
Water River, and those of the rest of the county to unite, as tribu- 
taries, with the East Fork of White River. With the exception 
of Big Blue River (which flows through Ripley Township, in the 
northeast corner of the county), all the rivers and creeks of the 
county have their origin within its limits or near the boundary Hnes. 
From this fact, it is manifest that the greater number of its streams 
are small. Flat Rock River is the most important stream of the 
countv, and, with its many tributaries (the largest of which is 
LitdeFlat Rock Creek), drains the northeast, central and south- 
west portions of the county. The northwest and western portions 
of the county are drained by Big Blue River and its branches. 
Little Blue River and Mud Creek. 

The flow of its streams to the west and southwest is deter- 
mined by the general lay of the land already described and the 
increasing depth and lower level, from the north to the south, of 
the Collett Glacial River valley, of which Rush County forms an 
integral part. 

In all drift regions, especially where the drift is heavy, as is 
the case in the north half of Rush County, the rivers and creek 
channels seldom reach down to the country rock. Below Hunger- 
ford's dam, Section 4, Township 12, Range 9, the bed of Big Flat 
Rock River is generally rocky, and the same is true of Little Flat 
Rock Creek, below Milroy. With these exceptions, and appear- 
ance of stone in the bed of the river, four miles below Rushville, 
and in Litde Blue River, below Arlington, the bed and banks of the 


streams are clay, gravel, or sand. Flat Rock River, where its bed 
lies wholly in the drift, has well-marked, level terrace banks, or second 
bottoms, ranging in width from one-half to one mile, with an aver- 
age width of three-fourths of a mile in the vicinity of Rushville. 
The average width of the river-bed, or first bottom, is about 300 feet; 
height of bank is 10 feet; and the difference between low and high 
water is 8 to 11 feet. The bluff banks of the second bottoms vary 
in height from 10 to 50 feet, and, in a few places, may reach even 
80 feet. The second bottoms of Big Blue River at Carthage, vary 
in width from one-half to one mile, with bluffs from 20 to 50 ^^ct 
high. Here, the river banks average 10 feet in height, and the 
difference between low and high water is 10 to 12 feet. In the 
early histor}^ of the county, most of the streams, having their origin 
in the ponds and swamps of the flat lands, were everlasting brooks 
and branches, which wound their sluggish way beneath the protect- 
ing shadows of a dense forest, but, under the improving hand of 
man, many of them have been changed into artificial ditches that 
are dr}? one-half the year. In this fast age, even the creeks and 
rivers are required to do their work in a hurry; the barriers that 
once held back the waters have been removed, the very soil, by 
tiling, deprived of its superabundant moisture, and the floods sent 
rushing down to the ocean. 

General Geology. — All the native stone, found in place, in Rush 
County, belongs either to the Niagara epoch of the Niagara group, 
Upper Silurian division of the Silurian Age, or the Corniferous 
epoch of the Corniferous group of the Devonian Age. 

Connected Section — ^tatcrnary Age — Alluvial Efoch. — Black 
soil and river deposits, 4 feet. 

Drift Period. — Bowlders, gravel, sand, yellov/ and blue clays, 
60 feet. 

Pahvozoic Time — Devonian Age — Corniferous Period. — Buff- 
colored magnesian limestone, lower division of the Corniferous 
epoch, used for making lime, 30 feet. 

Upper Silurian Age — Niagai-a Period. — Waldron shale, 2 feet; 
gray or blue limestone, building rock, 25 feet. Total, 151 feet. 

The thickness of each stratum, as given above, is an average 
of several measurements, made at different points. At some places, 
the Corniferous group stone has a thickness of less than one foot, 
at others it exceeds that given. In time but two ages are repre- 
sented, and the country rock underlying the drift forms but a small 
part of the great geological series. The top members of the 
Devonian, the whole of the Carboniferous, Reptilian and Tertiary 
ages are wanting; either they were never deposited over the sur- 
face of Rush County, or they have been removed by agencies that 

have worn awav and comminuted their rocky substance to coarse 
gravel, sand and impalpable clay. 

A practical inference from the absence of the rocks of the 
Carboniferous age, is that no true coal bed will ever be found 
within the limits of Rush Count^'. 


Cpper Silurian Time — JViagara Period. — Commencing with 
the Niagara group, this limestone is, geologically, the oldest rock 
seen in the county. I found it an even bedded, crystalline stone, of 
a drab blue, or gray color, outcropping along the banks of Big Flat 
Rock River, below Moscow, and from Milroy, south, on Little 
Flat Rock Creek, in Orange and Anderson townships. It does not 
seem to form an exposed part of the bluffs on either side of the 
valleys, and, if it is ever discovered in them, will be found at their 
base, covered by a heav}- stratum of the Corniferous group. As^ 
the drift, gravel, sand or clay covers all the stone of the rest of the 
county, with but a few exceptions in Pose}' and Rushville townships, 
it is not possible to exactly define the surface and boundary- of the 
Niagara stone. From the reported results of borings made in the 
vicinity of Rushville, and the outcrop seen in Flat Rock River, 
below the city, it is safe to say that wells sunk through the drift in 
Richland, Noble, Union and Washington townships, will reach the 
Niagara limestone. 

In the central tier of townships — Anderson, Rush-s'ille, Jackson 
and Center — the prevailing stone will depend largeh' on the irreg- 
ularity of the surface underh-ing the drift. The Niagara will 
probably be found in the low places, and the Corniferous cappin"- 
the higher, with a preponderance of the latter. Mr. Geo. C. Clark, 
of Rushville, reports that three-quarters of a mile from the city, 
up the mill-race, the freshets have exposed a gra}' limestone, on'a 
level with the bed of Flat Rock River, that is referred to the 
Niagara group. Driven and other wells, put down in the central 
part of the county, have struck a similar, if not identical stone. 

No outcrop of the Hudson River group, Lower Silurian, was 
seen, nor has any been reported, but, possibl}-, it m.a}- be found in 
some of the ravines or creek bottoms, on the east side of Richland 
township, under the thinned edge of the Niagara. No opportunity 
offered to measyre the dip, but the general topograph}^ of the 
count}' clearly indicates that it is to the southwest, at a rate of not 
less than sixteen feet to the mile. 

In the region of St. Paul, Decatur County, the Niagara limestone 
has a thickness of not less than forty feet, and, in places, more: but 
jt seems highly probable that, on the south line of this count^•, it 


thins out as it approaches the Cincinnati arch. Near the west- 
ern crest of the arch, the lithological characters of the top members 
are changed from cherty rubble to an even-textured stone, or the 
cherty portion has been eroded away; tlie former is the case with 
the outcrops seen in Rush County. 

Chemically, the Niagara limestone is a carbonate of lime and 
magnesia, in variable proportions, together with alumina, silica, and 
oxide of iron in much smaller quantities. The reddish color of 
weathered specimens of the stone is due to a change of the oxide of 
iron from a lower to a higher oxide, bv exposure. The percentage 
of silica is greatly increased in the flinty or cherty portions of the 
top strata, and is aggregated into irregular masses, nodules, and 
rough tables, that cause the stone, on exposure, to break into frag- 
ments. The Rush County stone seen b}^ me is comparatively free 
from cherty matter, as I have before mentioned; and, hence, the 
upper ledges are more valuable than the outcrops at some other 
places. Uniformity of structure is an important element in a dur- 
able limestone for building purposes — hard and soft places differ 
widely in the amount of water the stone will absorb, and so, by 
freezing, subject it to very unequal strains and cause it to shell and 
break. Mr. Geo. C. Clark called my attention to the gradual 
crumbling, to tine fragments, of the court house foundation in Rush- 
ville, where frequently, as much as an inch has been worn awaj-. 
Whether this erosion was due to atmospheric waste, acting on a 
stone deficient in the cement that holds the particles^^together, or 
irregularity in density, it was not possible to say with certainty, but 
probably the former; and it ma}- be that the durability of a lime- 
stone, aside fom the homogeneitv manifest to an ordinarv quarrv- 
man can be thoroughly tested only by time and exposure. And while 
but few ledges of this stone seen in Rush Countv will come up to 
the high standard required of a first-class building rock, for use in 
expensl ve structures, all of it will be found valuable for the thou- 
sand-and-one uses to which stone is now applied. It can be econom- 
ically worked in roadmaking, to form a base on which to spread 
gravel. This experiment is being made on the Milroy and Ander- 
son ville pike with every prospect of it proving a success. In time, 
the south part of the count}- will be fenced with stone walls taken 
from the Niagara beds of Big and Little Flat Rock; and, but for its 
n earness to the quarries just south of Decatur County line, it would 
n ow be in demand for fence posts and bases. At present what 
s tone is taken out is mainly used for foundations and other purposes 
about light buildings. 

It is evident that the Niagara limestone was formed at the bot- 
tom of a sea free from sediment, but subjected to currents sutfi- 



ciently strong to reduce the crinoid^ and other organic remains 
found in it to fragments; and as corals do not flourish below the 
influence of the waves, their presence in the top ledges indicate a 
shallowing of the waters near the close of the period. 

In this State the base of the Niagara is made up of shale, in 
strata ranging from a few inches to eight or nine feet in thickness. 
None of these beds are exposed in Rush Count}', but, as they out- 
crop northeast of Clarksburg, in Decatur County, they may be 
found near the surface in the southeast corner of Rush Count}'. 

The upper Niagara shale (or soapstone, as it is frequently 
called) is seen at Moscow and Milroy. This formation is generally 
known as the Waldron shale, for the reason that the outcrop, on 
Conn's Creek, in Shelby County, is largely made up of magnificent 
fossils that have given the locality a world-wide reputation. It does 
not seem to have an exact equivalent in anv of the adjoining States, 
and in Indiana, so far as reported, the outcrops are confined to Flat 
Rock River, Cliffy Creek and their tributaries. It is seen fre- 
quently from Moscow and Milroy, south, to Hartsville, and from 
Milroy and Sandusky, west, to Waldron. Aside from the fossils 
found in it and its marking the junction of the Upper Silurian and 
Devonian Ages, it has no special geological import of economic 
value. In this county, the Waldron shale contains more than the 
usual per cent, of argillaceous matter, nowhere showing imbedded 
nodules and flat pieces of limestone. Perhaps it was due to a want 
of carbonate of lime that no fossils were found in it, aside from a 
few fragments. In structure, the beds are made up of thin laminaj 
of friable shale and indurated clav. When not exposed the color 
is some shade of blue that weathers to yellow or ochrey, and the 
broken-down, disintegrated beds are scarcelv distinguishable from 
the overlying yellow clay of the Drift period. 

The conditions under which the Waldron shale was formed were 
in part a continuation of those of the shallow sea of the cherty Niag- 
ara limestone. The essential change in the conditions was the 
addition of currents loaded with a clay sediment. It has been sug- 
gested that, to the northward, the Waldron area was a more 
shallow sea, but, so far as yet reported, these beds are local, and, 
as indicated above, of no very great area, and it seems possible 
that the clay sediment also may have been of local origin. At this 
time in geological history the Lower Silurian limestone and shale 
of Indiana and Ohio, on the southeast, was either dry land or a 
wave- washed bank that may have furnished the alumina of the 
Waldron shale. 

Devonian Aor — Cornifcroits Period. — Geologists teach that 
the Devonian Ace is the record of an invasion of the dry land. 


then in existence, by the sea. The Devonian sea was bounded on 
the southwest by the islands of the emerging Cincinnati antichnal; 
on the west, the nearest land was the Lower Silurian mountains of 
Missouri; away to the north, the highlands of Canada were a part 
of a great and growing continent; on the east, in the States of New 
York and Penns3-lvania, an extended area of dry land was exposed. 
Doubtless changes in the relative level of the land and sea were 
more frequent and well marked in their influence on the east, where 
the Devonian shales and sandstones have a total thickness of more 
than 15,000 feet, than in Central Indiana, where the formation is 
for the most part limestone of an aggregate thickness of 300 feet 
or less. But over all the interior space a warm sea prevailed, even 
its northern margin being studded with coral reefs and islands, and 
its shores having a tropical vegetation (Newberr}-). 

The surface, extent and limits, east and west of the Corniferous 
group stone in Rush Count}^ ma}' be defined by reference to the 
description already given of the area covered by the Niagara 
epoch. Roughly stated, if all the drift materials were removed 
from the west half of the county, the exposed surface would be 
found to be buff-colored, magnesian limestone of the base or lower 
division of the Corniferous. Exceptions to this general rule are 
found in the valley's of the creeks and i-ivers. The stone exposed 
in the mound southwest of Rushville, Section 24, Township 13, 
Range 9, and near Swayne's mill, on Little Blue River, and in the 
vicinity of Arlington, are all outcrops of the Corniferous stone. 

In the banks of Big Flat Rock, near Moscow, it has the same 
general character as the strata further south. It is a coarse, argril- 
laceous stone, having much the physical appearance of a sand-rock, 
and is frequently so called by the quarrymen; but the ease with 
which it is burned to lime proves that it is not a sandstone. Near 
the bridge over Little Flat Rock Creek, just west of Milroy, the Cor- 
niferous is the only stone seen in the outcrop, and has the same 
earthy color and appearance, but is in thinner strata that break into 
wedge-shaped pieces with feather edges. In general appearance 
it is identical with the outcrops of the same formation in the vicin- 
ity of Greensburg, and contains a higher per cent, of carbonate of 
lime than the equivalent beds on Big Flat Rock. In its western 
exposure, at Moscow, the bedding is from medium to heavy mas- 
sive, bi'eaking into angular blocks that are rounded at the corners 
by weathering, and under certain conditions of constant moisture, 
disintegrate to a fine powder. One mile below Milroy, on Little 
Flat Rock, the Corniferous outcrops above the Waldron shale and 
has local characteristics that distinguish it from either of the two 
varieties before described. Here it is a thin-bedded, shelly, blue or 


i^,.. e ... 


drab, crystalline limestone apparently free from admixture with 
earth^^ matter. In lithological appearance, it is the equivalent of 
the middle division of the Corniferous group that lies just under 
the North Vernon stone in many other parts of the State. No- 
where in the adjoining counties have I seen a stratum of so highly 
crystalline stone as this at the base of the group. These varieties, 
occurring withing a radius of a few miles, indicate that they were 
formed under local conditions acting near the margin of a surf- 
beaten coast. 

The folowing is a list of fossils found in Rush County: 
Uffer Silurian-^ JViagara Grouf. — Favosites Forbesi (var. 
occideiitah's), Favosites spinigerus, Streptelasma radicans, Streptel- 
asma borealis, Cyathoph3dlum radicula, Eucalyptocrinus crassus, 
Eucalyptocrinus cfelatus, Lyriocrinus melissa, Lichenalia concen- 
trica, Anastrophia internascens, Retzia evax, Rhj-ncotreta cuneata 
(var. Ainen'ca)!a), Rhynchonella Whitii, Rh3'nchonella Indianensis, 
Meristina Maria, Meristina nitida, Atr^'pa reticularis, Spirifera crispa, 
Platyostoma Niagarensis, Strophostylus C3'clostomus, Gyroceras 
Elrodi, Orthoceras annulatum, Orthoceras crebescens. 

Devonian Age — Cornljcrous Group. — Cyathophyllum rugosum, 
Acervularia Da\idsoni, Favosites hemisphericus, Favosites limitaris, 
Favosites epidermatis, Stromatopora tuberculata, Zaphrentis gigan- 
tea, Athj-ris vitata, Atrypa reticularis, Spirifera Oweni, Spirifera 
euruteines, Spirifera mucronata, Strophodonta demissa, Conocardium 

All the sedimentary,' stone of Rush County is fossiliferous, but 
not highlv so: and no localities are known that offer attractions to 
the professional specimen collector. Just below the Decatur County 
line, on Big Flat Rock, Mr. Shaw showed me several fine fossils, 
found in the Niagara limestone of his quarry. One of them is, 
probably, an Eucalyptocrinus of very large size; another appears 
to be a large cystidian. He, also, has a fine specimen of Orthoceras 
strix, the only one I have seen from any of the Indiana beds. This 
locality is mentioned, with the hope that some good collector may 
visit and give it a thorough examination. The Waldron shale, so. 
far as seen, is nearly destitute of good specimens, and fragments 
by no means common. The Corniferous fossil beds present noth- 
ing specially different from those of other localities. Mr. Geo. C. 
Clark has some nice specimens of Spirifera mucronata (P^i and 
corals, found in the Drift gravel near the Little Flat Rock Christian 
Church. I visited the locality', but did not find anything of interest. 

Loral Details. — Following the banks of Big Flat Rock, north 
from St. Paul, the height of the bluffs gradually grows less, until, 
at Moscow, they are less than twenty feet. Generally, after cross- 


ing the county line, but one side of the stream shows a full bluff 
outcrop, the other side having been eroded awav bv the forces 
that, in ages gone by, excavated a valley manv times greater than 
the rain storms of this day ever fiU. Underlving some of these 
low bottoms, quarries can be opened and worked economically: the 
,quarr3'men will find but little stripping r^ecessary, nature having 
done this part of the work for him. 


Covered space 

Corniferous limestone, massive earth}' stone . 2 ft. o in. 

Waldron shale (clay), Niagara group o ft. 10 in. 

Flag, even-bedded Niagara limestone o ft. 23.-2 in. 

Flag o ft. 3 in. 

Flag o ft. 3 in. 

Flag o ft. ^}4 in. 

Flag, or dimension stone o ft. 10 in. 

Flag, or dimension stone o ft. 9 in. 

. Flag o ft. 5 in. 

Flag o ft. 4 in. 

Flag o ft. 3 in. 

Flag o ft. 4 in. 

Flag o ft. 2 in. 

Flag o ft. 2 in. 

Flag o ft. 4 in. 

Dimension stone o ft. 5 in. 

Dimension stone o ft. 4 in. 

Dimension stone o ft. 6 in. 

Dimension stone o ft. 10 in. 

Stone to the level of river bed 6 ft. o in. 

Total 15 ft. 7 in. 

This quarry is opened in the east bank of Flat Rock River, on 
the point of an angle formed by a ravine. The amount of work 
done has not been sufficient to develop the exact quality of the 
stone, that taken out being changed by exposure and atmospheric 
waste. So far as the quarr\' has been developed, the stone is very 
free from chert, so common in the top strata of the Niagara at 
other places. The bedding is loose, even, and generally free from 
vertical seams, and of sufficient thickness to make excellent flag 
and general-purpose building stone. The facilities for working the 
quarry are confined to an ordinary outfit of drills, bars, hammers 
etc. At the time of my visit, Mr. J. H. Jones, lessee of Jos. Owens 


the owner of the quany, and two employes, were engaged in pros- 
pecting and preparing to take out stone in quantities. With a good 
gravel road from Moscow to Milroy, a local demand, at least, might 
be developed that would pay good returns on a quarry investment. 
That the citizens of Milroy and vicinity are a wide-awake, enter- 
prising people, is shown by the money they have spent in building 
the Milroy and Andersonville free pike; a continuation of the same 
spirit will macadamize a road west to Big Flat Rock. Let the 
propi'ietors of the quarries show what they have on hand, and 
those in need of stone will get it away. 


Covered space, drift, clay and gravel 

Thin-beddded, crj'Stalline limestone, lower division of 

the Corniferous group, fossiliferous 3 ft. o in. 

Waldron shale, Niagara group, weathered to ochery- 
colored clay, and thin calcareous plates, very spar- 
ingly fossiliferous i ft. 6 in. 

Thin-bedded Niagara group limestone, to the bed of 

the creek 3 ft. o in. 

Total 7 ft. 6 in. 

This section was taken in the bend of the creek, on the east 
side, where the wash of the stream has removed the crumbling 
Waldron shale, and left the Corniferous limestone projecting over 
the bank. Quite a number of fossils were seen in the overhanging 
rock at this point, and in the equivalent stone further down the 
creek. The Waldron shale is here intercalated with verjr thin cal- 
careous lamina; that, when found thicker, as is the case at other 
points, are invariably fossiliferous. Here, the amount of carbonate 
of lime and magnesia appears to have been insufficient to preserve 
the organic remains buried in it. Only fragments and crinoid stems 
of the species general to this horizon were found. The underly- 
ing Niagara limestone is in thin strata, so far as could be seen, and 
much less massive than at the Moscow quarry. The same remark 
applies to the quarry of Captain Rice, located a little lower down 
the creek. That better stone could be had b}' opening back into 
the bank or bluff, is very probable, but, from what I have seen of 
this stone further south, it is not likely that the bedding will be 
heavy. The Niagara beds in this vicinity will yield good, light 
flagging, fence posts, bases, and light building-stone. Nowhere, in 
hundreds of examinations of the base of the Corniferous, where 


it forms a junction with the Waldron shale, have I found the 
stone so highly crj'Stalline and so nearly a pure limestone as here. 
Doubtless it will make excellent " hot " lime, but, on account of 
its tendency to shell, will not prove of value for any other pur- 

^lartcrnary Age, Drift Period. — In Rush Count}', covering 
alike the Upper Silurian on the east and the Devonian on the west, 
to a depth ranging from. ten to one hundred feet, and thus largely 
concealing them from view, is found a mixture of clay, sand, gravel, 
pebbles, angular, subangular, and rounded stones, generally unas- 
sorted, unstratified and unfossiliferous. Out of this apparentl}^ 
heterogeneous mixture, a careful studjr evolves a degree of order 
that, in its history, has been governed by the same invariable laws 
of antecedents and sequences as in the other domains of nature. 
The general arrangement of the drift materials is illustrated in the 
following sections: 


Soil 6 ft. 6 in. 

Hard, yellow, gravelly clay, with hardpan at bottom. 38 ft. o in. 
Hard stone 16 ft. o in. 

Total 60 ft. 6 



Soil 9 ft. o in. 

Clay and black carbonaceous soil (?) 25 ft. o in. 

Black sand, slightlj^ water-bearing 8 ft. o in. 

IMixed gravel and clay, no water 16 ft. o in. 

Total 58 ft. o in. 


Yellow hardpan, similar to the blue clay hardpan only 

in color 36 ft. o in. 

Bed of fine gravel and water 6 ft. o in. 

Stone 9 ft. 6 in. 

Total 51 ft. 6 in. 



Soil, yellow clay, and gravel 6 to 8 ft. 

Blue clay, hardpan 14 to 15 ft. 

Fine white sand and water 

Total 20 to 23 ft. 


Soil, yellow clay, and blue clay hardpan 91 ft. o in. 

Stone, probabl}' Corniferous group; whitish, soft sandy 
clay, Waldron shale(?); stone, probably Niagara 
group; total of stone iS ft- O in. 

Total 106 ft. o in. 

This bore, one of the deepest reported in the count}^, was put 
down on the table-land back of the highest bluff. Water was 
found in the lower stratum of stone, and rose about sixty-seven 
feet in the bore. 


Soil and yellow clay, mixed with large gravel 5 to 5 ft. 

Gravel 4 to 6 ft. 

Blue clay hardpan 10 to 25 ft. 

Quicksand and water 

Total 19 to 36 ft. 


Soil 6 ft. o in. 

Yellow clay, and very little gravel 32 ft. o in. 

Hardpan, blue clay iS ft. o in. 

Stone o ft. 10 in. 

Total 56 ft. 10 in. 


Soil, free from gravel 2 ft. 6 in. 

Yellow clay, free from gravel S ft. o in. 

Blue clay, hardpan 25 ft. o in. 

Total 35 ft. 6 in. 



Soil 3 ft. o in. 

Yellow, loam}^ clay 7 ft. o in. 

Loamy sand 10 ft. o in. 

Blue clay 47 ft- o in. 

Fine quicksand 3 ft. o in. 

Snow-white sand i ft. o in. 

Gravel and sand 2 ft. o in. 

Total 73 ft. o in. 


Soil I to 2 ft. 

Yellowy clay, slightly mixed with gravel 10 to 10 ft. 

Blue and hardpan clay 10 to 20 ft. 

Fine sand and water 

Total 21 to 32 ft. 


Soil I to 2 ft. 

Yellow cla}^, uniformly found in the village and sur- 
rounding country 10 to 10 ft. 

Blue clay, sometimes replaced by a stratum of sand. . 8 to 10 ft. 

Gray clay and hardpan, usuall}' mixed with fragments 

of chert and pebbles 6 to 8 ft. 

Gravel, sand, or muck, water-bearing, and, from two 

wells, fair specimens of peat 3 to 5 ft. 

Total 28 to 35 ft. 

In one well dug at Milroy, 150 yards from Little Flat Rock, 
sand was reached five or six feet from the top; after going through 
ten feet of sand water was found, which filled the well so it could 
not be walled. In one of the village wells a bowlder fifteen inches 
in diameter was found in the muck stratum, and they are reported 
as of frequent occurrence in other wells. Along the southern 
border of Anderson Township there is a stratum of red cla}- that 
seems to replace the lower blue clay, as it comes from the bottom 
of the wells. The average of the wells above given is taken from 
wells dug on the uplands, above the first terrace or second bottom 
of the creek. 

From the foregoing sections, it will be seen that there is an orderly 
succession of strata, from the bottom to the top of — ( i ) sand, 


quicksand or gravel; (2) blue plastic clay or gray hardpan, and occas- 
ionally, buried timber, muck or peat; (3) 3'ellow or red clay; and 
(4) soil. Another conspicuous member (5) of the Drift, not men- 
tioned above, is the frequent occurrence, in places, of bowlders — 
exotic stones, derived from the Archaean rocks found native in the 
high land of Canada and on the south shore of Lake Superior. In 
some of the sections it will be noticed that one or more of the gen- 
erallj' found strata are wanting; either they were never formed, or 
by the action of local causes, they have been removed, or altered 
and blended, until it is impossible to identify them as the equiva- 
lent of any particular stratum; but however altered and changed, 
the order of succession remains the same in the Rush County Drift. 
In the southern townships. Orange, Anderson and Richland, 
the average thickness of the Drift will not vary much from thirty 
feet. On the east side of the county, in Richland, Noble, Union 
and Washington townships, near the water-shed, the deposit grows 
thinner, and will not generally exceed twenty feet. At Rushville, 
Henr}' Ormes Sa. Co., who have made many borings and wells, 
give forty-eight to tifty feet as the average depth of stone. North, 
northwest and west of Rushville the general depth w'ill reach sixty 
feet and over. At Manilla, the well above reported passed through 
seventy-three feet of Drift; and another, bored on an adjoining 
farm, is said to have been put down 123 feet before reaching the 
bottom of the blue claj-. 

The sand, glacial sand or gravel stratum resting on the country 
stone is not alike constant over high and low ground, but it seems 
to occur in greatest force in the surface depressions. Its compo- 
nent materials range in size from fine siliceous sand to gravel and 
angular chert fragments; in color, from snow-white to dark or 
black quicksand. Generally it is a water bearing bed of fine sand, 
but is occasionally replaced by dry, hard pieces of stone, that, from 
lithological and fossil evidence, are probably the debris of the eroded 
Carboniferous and Niagara group limestones. It is suggested that 
the agencies that reduced the flinty portions of the stone in one 
case to tine particles or sand, and in the other to coarse gravel, 
were not uniform in their action. Occasionally, as in some of the 
w'ells at Milroy, this and the next succeeding stratum are blended 

The blue, plastic clay, bowlder clay, glacial clay, or hardpan, is 
a very generally diffused member of the Drift, occurring univers- 
ally, except in the valleys south of Rushville, where the rivers and 
creeks reach down to, or near, the bed-rock. Wells and borings 
sunk in the first river terrace on Big Blue River, at Carthage, and 
on Big Flat Rock, at Rushville, pass through the blue clay, show- 


ing that the forces which have excavated the valle^-s ceased to act 
at these points before reaching the bottom of the blue hardpan. 
Taking the average depth to stone of the Rushville wells at forty- 
eight feet, and comparing it with twent}- feet, the average height 
of the bluff part of the cit}' above the bed of Flat Rock, it will be 
seen that many of the wells go twenty-eight feet below the river 
channel before reaching stone. The exposure of stone, before men- 
tioned, on the west bank of the river, at the head of the millrace, 
on a level with the bottom of the stream, shows that Flat Rock 
does not reach down to the bed of the ancient valley. During the 
Drift period, the vallej' was filled with clay and gravel, and the 
channel of the present river subsequently formed near the close of 
the period. The Avell at the northeast corner of the court house 
yard (dug eighteen feet in the surface claj- and gravel without 
striking the blue clay), indicates that the bed of the river may 
have shifted from the north to the south at a still later date in geo- 
logical history, or the bed of the modern Flat Rock may formerly 
have been much wider and graduall}- contracted, bv silting, to its 
present limits. In ph3'sical appearance it is a blue or lead-colored 
cla}', where protected from atmospheric change; where exposed, 
of a lighter shade. It usually occurs in compact beds, ranging 
from a soft, laminated, plastic, putty-like mass, to a dry, impervious 
hardpan, that can only be excavated with a pick. That these 
differences in consistency are largely due to moisture may be 
shown by subjecting different specimens to the same drying pro- 
cess. Chemically, it is an alumina silicate, mixed with fine, impal- 
pable sand and salts of iron; its color is due to the latter. At 
Rushville, Mr. Geo. C. Clark describes this stratum, by saying 
that " It is not properly blue clay, but a hardpan of dark bluish 
cast, verj' gritty, filled with coarse sand and pebbles or gravel, in- 
termixed Hke grouting. It has a very disagreeable smell, and, 
w^hen it forms the wall of a well or the well is walled inside of it, 
the water has an offensive smell and taste for some months, but, 
finally, becomes palatable. In some places this bluish hardpan is 
forty feet thick, but generally less. " " Southwest of the city, four 
or five miles, a well, bored sixtj^ feet deep, did not strike stone, but 
found real blue clay, tough and resisting the drill by elasticity. " 

In some places, fair-sized bowlders of northern origin are found 
in this stratum, but, as a rule, the}!' are small, worn, and occasion- 
ally striated. Not infrequently it contains intercalated beds of 

The occurrence of buried timber, or a bed of soil and carbona- 
ceous matter, is intimately connected with a description of the blue 
clay. In this portion of Indiana it usually occurs at the top of the 


statum, but at Milroy was found at the bottom. Buried soil or tim- ■ 
bar is reported in nearly every neighborhood in the southern town- 
ships of the county. The soil bed, where it forms the top of the blue 
clay, is frequently overlooked in digging wells, or only remarked 
as a bed of black earth or cla}% while the finding of a stick of wood 
or the root of a tree twenty or thirt}^ feet below the surface, is 
something out of the usual line, and is reported; and the same is 
true of the muck beds. I am thoroughly convinced that the less 
conspicuous soil bed is of much more frequent occurrence. 

The yellow or orange colored clay is found everywhere overly- 
ing the blue clav, except in the valleys and upland gravel ridges. 
Over the east side of the county, and in the vicinit}' of New Salem 
and Richland, it is so intimately associated with the top soil that it 
is not possible to separate them. Near the Fayette County line, 
the color is a reddish orange, and especially so in parts of Wash- 
ington Township. Generally, it is comparatively free from gravel 
in the uplands on the east and north sides of the county. Isolated 
points, low mounds and slight ridges, are not infrequent in which 
the proportion of gravel and sand is increased. This increase is, in 
part, due to the clay having been dissolved out by the rains. The 
gravel, pebbles, and bowlders distributed through the mass are 
identical in composition with those of the blue cla}-, but are less 
worn; especially is this true of the bowlders that are larger, seldom 
sub-angular, striated or flattened on one side by attrition. In struc- 
ture it is a heterogeneous, friable clay, much more pervious to 
water than the blue clay, and yet so tenacious as to be improved 
by tiling. The percentage of lime is quite large, as indicated by a 
vigorous growth of sugar maple. The calcareous matter and very 
fine sand incorporated with the orange clay, in parts of Richland, 
Noble, Union and Washington townships, give it many of the physi- 
cal characters of loess. Ten feet will cover its average thickness 
in Anderson Township, that gradually grows heavier on the north, 
until it will measure thirtv feet or more. Near the southeast cor- 
ner of the county, the yellow clay is very thin; and over the line in 
Franklin County it fails as a factor of the Drift period, and leaves 
the blue clay exposed as the surface clay. 

On the crest of the river bluff, west of Big Flat Rock, for five 
miles below Moscow, is a continuous ridge of imperfectly stratified 
gravel unmixed with clay. The stratification is seldom parallel 
with, the horizon, but more clearty conforms to the surface slope of 
the ridge. A transverse section shows the alternating strata of 
sand, gravel, sand and gravel, or sand, gravel and pebbles, running 
in irregular, increasing, and vanishing lines, that may or mav not 
be conformable. The composition of a stratum is not uniform. It 


may be made up of sand in one place, that gradually changes to 
gravel within a few feet. Here and there pockets are found, filled 
with clean, unstratified sand, or well-rounded metamorphic pebbles 
and bowlders. Occasional blocks of water-worn Niagara lime- 
stone occur, that seem to increase in size and number below the 
Decatur Count}- line. By infiltration of water charged with car- 
bonate of lime, in favorable localities, the thin beds of polished 
gravel and pebbles are cemented into a mass of conglomerate. 
This ridge contains enough good road gravel to macadamize Rush 
County. Other beds of upland gravel are reported as occurring 
east of Moscow, but were not examined; and it is probable that 
some of the low gravel beds on the east side of the count}^ are 
similar in origin and structure to that described. 

Along the banks of the principal streams, as already shown, 
are terraces or bottoms, averaging something over one-half mile 
in width. These terraces are the direct result of the wash or 
scouring action of the river flow that has removed the previous de- 
posit of yellow cla3\ 

Borings made in the bottom pass through what is left undis- 
turbed of the original Drift series, and show the same general sec- 
tion or borings on the uplands, minus a part of the yellow clay bed. 
In other places, the erosive action has been carried down to the 
blue clay, and sections show a partial replacement of the yellow 
clay by gravel or coarse sand. The terrace gravel beds are usually 
stratified, but not alwaj^s so, and present the same alternating strata 
of fine and coarse materials, with increasing and vanishing layers, 
as the upland beds, but differ from the latter in having a strata | 
nearly horizontal, more continuous, and showing less evidence of 
having been acted on by currents coming from two or more direc- 
tions. The stratified terrace beds, when unmixed with large frag- 
ments of Niagara or Corniferous stone, 3-ield good road gravel. Fre- 
quently however, a few feet awa}- from the channel of the stream, the 
gravel does not show stratification, and is too fine for macadamiz- 
ing purposes. Well-marked second terraces were not observed in 
Rush County, but something of that kind shows near the southern 
boundarj' line, above the confluence of Big and Little Flat Rock, 
where the latter stream cuts across the ancient flood plain. These 
terraces are supposed to be evidence of a greater flow of water, 
some time in the past, together with a gradual elevation of the 
land on the north, that gave greater velocity to its rivers and, hence, 
more power to scour deep channels. 

The extension of the yellow clav and gravel laj'ers over the 
summit of the divide between the White Water and White River 
valleys, east of Rushville, and much above the level at which the 


equivalent bends are wanting in other places not many miles dis- 
tant, is suggestive of some curious speculations on the geology of 
Indiana. If the yellow clay deposit is due to a submergence, it 
seems probable that these high lands must have been relatively 
lower than at present. Observations bearing on the history of the 
Cincinnati arch of the Lower Silurian, and the geological period or 
epoch in which its western border was uplifted to the present level, 
and omitted as too technical for presentation here. 

Bowlders are scattered throughout the mass of the 3^ellow clay 
and gravel beds, but the vast majority seem to lie on or near the 
surface. In size, they range from a few inches to two or three 
feet in diameter. In shape, they are angular and verj^ seldom show 
a worn surface; especially is this true of the isolated specimens. 
On the side of the bluff bank, below Moscow, lies much the largest 
one I have seen in Southeastern Indiana ; it will probably weigh over 
twenty-five tons. They are not common over the whole countj^ 
but are principally found in the southeast and west parts, and seem 
to occur as the continuation of a line of bowlders that reaches south, 
nearl\' to North Vernon. They are Archaean rocks, generally of 
the gneissoid variety. 

Recent Period. — The soil of Rush Count}* is almost wholly de- 
rived from the Drift deposits. Scarcely any of it is due to decom- 
positfon of the country stone found in situ ; it is the combined result 
of the Quarternar)' Age acted on by the fertilizing agency of ani- 
mal and vegetable life. In color, it ranges through various shades 
from black to pale yellow; the former is locally known as the black 
land, and the latter as the clay land. The black loamy soil covers 
the greater part of the surface of the count}*, and is general over 
the central and western parts. The great body of the black lands 
were formerly wet and swampy, and the dark color is due to the 
humus and carbonaceous matter derived from the decayed vegeta- 
tion that grows luxuriantly over its surface. The yellow clay beds 
form the subsoil, except in the terrace bottoms, where the clay is 
sometimes replaced by gravel or sand. Outside the black lands, 
the distinction between the top and subsoil is not mai'ked; the pale 
yellow surface clay grows brighter as it gradually grow'S deeper, 
and has more the character of a true tenacious clay. The tenacity 
of the subsoil explains W'hy all the lands of the county are improved 
by tiling. A happy blending of calcareous matter, sand and clay 
in the subsoil, renders it peculiarly susceptible to the aerating in- 
fluence of under-drainage. Exposed to the fertilizing influences of 
air and rain, charged with carbonic acid, the calcareous matter 
locked up in the clay and fine limestone gravel is unloosed, the 
salts of potash and soda set free, organic matter taken up, and, di- 


rectly, it supports a vigorous growth of vegetation. The yellow 
clay subsoils of Indiana universal!}- contain all the inorganic and a 
large per cent, of the organic elements of fertility; those of Rush 
County, in consequence of their fine state of division, readil}' yield 
their elements in bountiful harvest, the substantial foundation of 
all wealth. Practically, they are inexhaustible; they may deteri- 
orate under continuous cultivation and non-rotation of crops, but 
rest soon restores them to pristine productiveness. 

Eco)2omic Gcologw — The wealth of Rush County is essentially 
agricultural, together with such commercial relations as necessarily 
grow out of the wants of a great farming communit}'. Originally 
covered with a dense forest, and, in places, wet, the husbandman 
has nobly done his work of turning an unbroken wilderness into 
splendid farms. The virgin soil, without a rival, has been con- 
stantl}' growing more productive. The bountiful gift of nature has 
been carefully utilized, until, to-day, instead of a wild waste, the e)^ 
wanders over well-inclosed farms and growing grain, pasture fields 
dotted vv^ith blooded horses and cattle, huge barns and fine resi- 
dences. A moment's attention directed to agricultural statistics 
and land drainage will more forcibl}- and eloquently show, than 
mere words, what has been done for the farming interests of the 

In 1882, the assessors of Rush County reported 446,00 rods of 
tiling against 442,000 rods in Shelby, 477,000 rods in Marion, and 
693,000 rods in Decatur; giving to Rush the third place in the 
State in the number of rods of tile put down. Before a people can 
expend money in improvements they must first produce a surplus. 
That surplus is easily accounted for. In the number of bushels of 
corn produced per acre. Rush outranked any other county in the 
State and was third in aggregate j-ield, with 2,223,414 bushels 
grown on 57,669 acres. The two leading corn counties were 
Tippecanoe and Benton, both including extensive tracts of Wabash 
bottoms within their limits. With 55,070 acres sown in wheat, 
producing 997,772 bushels, it ranks fifth in the State, and is led by 
Gibson, Daviess, Posej- and Shelb}- counties. In clover lands, it 
had 20,369 acres against 21,310 acres in Wabash Count}-. No 
more direct proof could be adduced than the last item, of the atten- 
tion paid to the rotation of crops and keeping the land up to its 
high state of fertility. In 1881, 59,891 hogs were fatted for 
market, which is nearly thirty per cent, more than was produced in 
any other county in Indiana. The number of horses, mules and 
cattle owned in the county is well up with the best. In the lead- 
ing farm products and stock raising. Rush is found at the head of 
the list. A very few counties may exceed it in a single farm pro- 


duct; but, when the whole list is taken into consideration, it stands 
without a rival. The mines of California ma}- be exhausted, manu- 
facturing may be overdone, banks may break and securities decline 
in value, but, with proper care, the Rush Count}' farmer need not 
have anv fears for the future. The peculiar adaptability of its soil 
to the growth of any of the cereals or to stock raising gives a va- 
riety of resources, that, in all human probability, render a total 
failure an impossibility. 

The general remarks of Prof. Collett on the soils of Indiana 
are especially applicable to the black land, clay soil and yellow 
clay subsoil of Rush Count}-. A heavy forest of sugar maples 
and walnut, supported by experimental evidence, is proof of its 
calcareous nature and adaptabilit}' to the growth of blue grass. 

"The surface of the drift was left nearly level, but has since 
been modified by fluviatile and lacustral agencies, sorting the claj'S, 
sands, etc., so as to form, generally, a loose, calcareous loam, deeply 
covering the gently undulating wood lands, plains and valleys. 
The great depth of the Drift deposit allows it to act as a gigantic 
sponge, absorbing excess of moisture in the spring or winter, until 
the long sunny days of summer, thus insuring against any pro- 
longed drouth, and constituting a superior grazing district. For 
the perfect growth of grasses, a rich soil and perennial moisture is 
required, conditions which do not prevail in manjr other States. 
Indiana is the native home of "Blue Grass," Poa pra/eiisis — the 
glorj' of our rich calcareous soils — and infallible gold-finder. It 
forms a permanent sward, thickening with age, so that, within ten 
or twent}' years, the sod will withstand the hoof of heavy bullocks, 
even in wet weather. It grows slowly under the snow of a cold 
winter, but bursts into new life with the first genial day of spring, 
carpets the earth with productive beauty through the summer, and, 
if reser\ed for winter, cattle, horses, sheep, etc., may be well kept, 
except in time of deep snows, on this food alone."* 

"Among the blue grass trotters," America over, is understood 
to mean more than the accidental relationship of the queen of na- 
tive grasses to the fast horse. Muscle is necessary to the thorough 
development of the horse; "blood will tell," and the blue grass 
wood lands tell on the blood. The elastic sward, over which the 
high-steppers range, gives ease and grace to his proud move- 
ments, while he is protected from the blazing sun in "pastures 
green," that are charmingh^ undulating and invite trials of speed. 
Everything in nature and the loving care of man conspire to give 
life and strength to the noble animal. The Blue Bull and Jim 

' First Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Geology, Indiana, page 9. 


Monroe farms of the late James Wilson, of Noble Township, 
attest what can be done. These farms have turned out trotters 
and pacers that take rank with the best in America. The Blue 
Bull strain has second place in the trotting list for horses that have 
made better than 2:30; and Monroe Chief, from the Monroe farm, 
has a trotting record of 2:16^. 

It has been remarked that the possession of a fast horse curi- 
ously gives a kind of vicarious merit to his proprietor; he is 
esteemed a^ something of a high stepper and flyer, and as likety to 
run his factory, his newspaper, or his farm, or whatever it may be, 
a little better than other people. It is the best advertising medium 
known. And, in a degree, the same is true of the breeders of all 
kinds of pedigreed stock. Of the many proprietors who prove the 
truth of the above in Rush County, that are engaged in stock rais- 
ing, and especially interested in producing improved strains of 
horses, cattle, etc., onl}* a few can be mentioned here. Mr. Richard 
Wilson, of Rushville, and Mr. Samp. Wilson, of Noble Township, as 
breeders of trotting horses, maintain the well-merited reputation of 
their father. Mr. John T. McMillan and Mr. Cal. Bates are well 
known owners of thoroughbred Norman horses. Mr. S. Frazee, 
of Noble Township, breeds, and exhibits at the State and county 
fairs, complete herds of full-blooded shorn-horn cattle. IMr. George 
W. Thomas, of Homer, is another breeder of short-horn stock; 
and Mr. J. H. Beaubout, of Rushville, of Jerseys. Mr. Leonard 
McDaniel, of Posey Township, and Geo. W. Mauzy, of Union 
Township, are well-known producers of full-blooded Cotswold, 
South Down, Canada, and Merino sheep. Of course, in a county 
so largely engaged in hog-raising, especial attention is paid to the 
production of all the leading varieties. 

All the various kinds of orchard and small fruits are success- 
full}' grown, but not so extensively as in some of the adjoining 
counties. A rich sugar tree soil will undoubtedly produce the very 
best kind of orchard products. AVinter-killing seems to be the 
great draw-back. With care in selecting varieties of trees that 
are known to be hard}', and good under-drainage, this trouble 
might be obviated. Wheat, corn, and stock-raising chiefly occupy 
the attention of farmers, but some fine orchards were seen, show- 
ing what might be done for the whole county. 

The soft magnesian stone found at the base of the Corniferous 
group, at Moscow and Milroy, makes a lime that is highly prized 
by masons and plasterers, and especiallv by the latter, on account 
of its working easily and smoothly under the trowel. The Moscow 
stone, having a considerable percentage of earthy matter, will yield 
a " cool " lime that slacks slowly; while that produced from the 


Milroy stone, on account of its more crystalline character, will rank 
as an intermediate between a "cool" and "hot" lime. Typical "hot" 
lime is produced from the hard Niagara stone. It was formerly 
thought that the dark, rotten, Corniferous rock, having much the 
appearance of a decomposing sandstone, that occurs abundantly on 
the banks of Flat Rock and its tributaries, was utterl}' worthless 
for making lime. Experience shows that the darkest stone will 
burn perfectly white, and that the alumina, or earthy matter, mixed 
\\ith it, adds greatly to its value for builders' use. The equivalent 
of the stone under discussion is used in making lime at Adams and 
Greensburg, in Decatur Count}', and at Geneva, in Shelby Count}'. 
The ease with which the Flat Rock stone can be quarried, and the 
less amount of fuel required to reduce it than the hard Niagara 
stone, are questions of expense that indicate that the business might 
be made to pay in this county. 

Any of the yellow or blue clay of Rush County, when free from 
gravel, can be readily moulded and burned into brick or tile. Brick 
buildings are common in the towns and country; and farmers usu- 
ally make what they need out of the clay found on the farm. 
Messrs. Patten and Caldwell, of Rushville, have a steam tile factory 
and kiln, with a capacity to turn out from 18,000 to 20,000 tile at 
a burn. There are a number of other factories of less note in the 

Road gravel I is found in the terrace bottoms of all the creeks, 
but not abundantly on the smaller streams. In Orange, Anderson, 
and Noble townships, upland gravel ridges occasionally occur that 
are free from clay, but the main supply for the county comes from 
the banks and bars of Big Blue and Flat Rock Rivers. 

Bog iron ore, in considerable quantity, has formed on the bor- 
ders of the marshy tracts of land five miles east of Rushville. 
These deposits of ore are the result of the organic acids, derived 
from decomposing plants, acting on the salts of iron that occur in 
the drift clay, thereby rendering them soluble. By exposure to the 
air oxidation takes place, generally at the margin of the marsh, and 
the. iron, in the form of hydrated peroxide, is again thrown down. 
Such accumulations are not infrequent, and some day may have a 
commercial value. 

In 1879 '^"'^ 1880, the assessors for this count}' reported more 
gallons of maple syrup made than were reported from any other 
county in the State. A soil that supports a mighty growth of sugar 
maple, Acer saccharinum, will abound in majestic specimens of 
black walnut, yug-hnis nigra; yellow poplar, Liriodcndron tiilif- 
ifera: white oak, ^lercus alba: white ash, J^raxiiiiis Americana ; 
shellbark hickory, Carya alba; dogwood, Coniits Florida; red bud, 


Cercis Canadensis; iron wood, Carfrinus Americana ; paw-paw, 
Asimina triloba, etc. Beech, Fagus ferriiginea ;' burr oak, ^tercus 
macrocarpa ; elm, Ulnms Americana; swamp maple, Acer dysacar- 
^itm, etc., are the most common varieties of timber growing on the 
wet, black lands. On the east side of the count)', huge yellow 
poplars were once common; and one cut a few years ago, growing 
in Union Township, is said to have been the largest reported in the 
State. The great body of the primitive forest has been removed 
in preparing the land for the plow, and the wood lands left have 
been culled of their best trees. A casual examination of a Rushville 
saw-mill yard, containing o^"er three hundred logs, showed only 
beech, maple and elm. 

The artesian chalybeate wells of West Rushville have attracted 
attention for years, and are curious examples of subterranean 
streams or sheets of mineral water, held down bj' the impervious 
blue clay. The wells are dug in the usual manner, or dug a few 
feet, and then bored through the cla}'. The x^^ater is found in 
the fine gravel or white sand overlying the bed rock. Pump logs 
were placed in some of the wells and tamped with claj- until the 
water was forced through the log. The quantity- of water dis- 
charged was never great, and additional wells seemed to weaken 
the flow of those previously dug, indicating that the water probably 
comes from a compact, saturated bed of sand that slowly gives up 
its superabundant moisture. Other mineral springs of note are 
found in the vicinity of Homer, and at the Soldiers' Home, south 
of Knightstown. Small ferruginous springs are rather common in 
all parts of the count}', and, so far as I could learn, are nearly iden- 
tical in composition. Their chemical nature is shown by the brown 
or ochery deposit of hydrous peroxide of iron seen near the spring. 
Before reaching the surface, the iron is held in solution as a ferrous 
carbonate, that is rapidly changed to the insoluble peroxide by oxi- 
dation on exposure to the air; hence, to get the medicinal effects 
of the water it should be used fresh from the spring. It will be 
found beneficial in all diseases where a mild preparation of iron is 

Water Sitpfly. — There is a wide-spread belief among phvsi- 
cians as well as the laity, that sheets of water found in or confined to 
the sand or gravel beneath the cla^^ are continuous, and that the 
pollution of one well will contaminate man}'. That there is some 
truth in this, I am free to admit, but not to the extent generally be- 
lieved. That the water supply of the cit}' of Rush\-ille has nothing 
to do with the level of Flat Rock River has already been shown. 
The var3dng depth of wells to water, and failures to find water, 
are proof that the water-bearing sand under the city is not contin- 

_^<:^^>-^^ rife/' 


uous, nor on a common level. Two wells were put down just west 
of Main Street and north of R,uth Street, respectively twelve and 
eighteen feet to w^ater; and two others near by, one on the west 
twenty-seven feet deep, and the other on the east thirty-seven feet 
deep, and no water. Southeast of the latter well, in court-house 
square, water was found at eighteen feet. Mr. J. C. Parker's 
well, north of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis depot, was 
put down fifty-eight feet, no water; another, near the point where 
the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis road crosses Main Street, 
failed to find water at eighty-seven feet; while water was found in 
the triangle formed by the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis 
Railroad, Main Street, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis 
Railroad, at thirty-eight feet. These differences in depth are not due 
to inequalities of the surface," as the city is built on comparatively 
level ground. 

Throughout the county, potable water for culinary and drink- 
ing purposes is almost wholly obtained through wells, and, as 
might be expected, springs rarely occur in a countrj^ so uniformly 
level. Wells sunk to the gravel or sand stratum, under the blue 
clay, reach an abundant supply of water; in localities where the 
claj'' rests on the country stone, a vein has to be found in the rock, 
or the well proves a failure — failures, however, are not common. 
Well water contains more or less mineral matter, even where it 
percolates through sandstone, and the water found in or beneath 
the calcareous drift deposits is universarily "hard." That this hard- 
ness is not wholly due to calcic and magnesic carbonates is shown 
by its not being rendered "soft" by boiling, that changes the 
bicarbonates held into solution into insoluble carbonates, with con- 
sequent precipitation. The hardness remaining after boiling is 
probably due to calcic sulphate. Notwithstanding a hard water 
does not answer for all kinds of household use, it is perfect!}' health- 
ful, sparkling and delicious. 

The Rivers' Pollution Commissioners of England, in their sixth 
report, make the following classification of water in respect of 
wholesomeness and general fitness for drinking and cooking: 
Wholesome — (i) Spring water; (2) deep well water; (3) upland 
surface water. Snsficioiis — (i) Stored rainwater; (2) surface 
water from cultivated • land. Daiig-erous — (i) River water to 
which sewage gains access; (2) shallow wells. In this county 
wholesomeness and safety lie in the use of water from deep wells 
that reach the glacial sand or gravel or a vein deep in the stone. 
Some facts have come to my attention indicating that the well water 
may be unwholesome that has percolated through the ancient forest 
bed or buried muck and carbonaceous soil. Especially does this 


seem to be true where the stratum rests on the native stone, and 
the water supply comes from it or from the stone just beneath. 
Organic matter in water, no difference what the source may be, 
supplies the conditions necessary for the development of microzymes. 
Every source of organic contamination should be rigidly e.xcluded 
b}' digging deep, and protecting the mouth of the \\'ell from surface 
wash or soakage. A supply of soft water is had by storing rain 
and snow water in cisterns that are easily made in the clay. 

Arckcrology. — Burial mounds of a race of people who lived 
prior to the advent of the modern Indians not infrequently occur, 
and, so far as reported, are most common in the southern part of 
the county. I visited the site of a large mound on the farm of Mr. 
Louis J. Offutt, northeast quarter of 'Section 21, Township 14, 
Range 9, that, in the early settlement of the country, is said to 
have been 106 feet in diameter and 15 feet high, and connected 
with a smaller mound, on the northeast, by a ditch. Fifty-three 
years ago, the large mound was covered with a heavy growth of 
beech timber, some of the trees measuring iS inches in diameter. 
Since the timber has been cut awa\- and the mound ploughed into, 
it has been nearly leveled with the ground. A few j-ears ago Mr. 
Offutt dug into the larger one, near the center, and found parts of 
several skeletons, copper bands encircling the bones of the arms, 
wrists and ancles, bone beads, and two curiously perforated pieces 
of jawbone with a single, tusk-like tooth. The perforations were 
cut through the bone into the hollow of the tusk, and gave it some- 
what the appearance of a whistle, but its use is not very evident. 

Dr. S. H. Riley, of Milroy, has assisted in opening several 
mounds in the county, and reports that they all contained ashes, 
charcoal, and red or burnt clay. Relics were found in three of 
them. In one (Section 12, Township 13, Range 9), were found 
an arrow point, copper needle, beads, and block of mica of an oval 
shape, 7 by II inches in diameter and Jb of an inch thick. Two 
nearly perfect skeletons and parts of a third were found in another 
(Section 27, Township 12, Range 9), buried with the heads 
turned toward a common center; also copper and bone beads. 
Some bones and copper bracelets were found in the third one (Sec- 
tion 12, Township 13, Range 9). A large mound in Section 27, 
Township 12, Range 9, about 10 feet high and 40 feet in diameter, 
has not yet been explored. From the fact that shells peculiar to 
the Atlantic Ocean, copper from the shores of Lake Superior, and 
mica from the mines of South Carolina have been found in the 
mounds along the banks of Little Flat Rock Creek, it is presumed 
that the commercial relations of their builders were much more 
extensive than their limited means of travel would seem to indicate. 




Indian History — Early Tribes — The Delawares — Treaty 
Ceding Rush County to the United States — Miscella- 
neous Items. 

.PON the first introduction of Europeans among the 
Drimitive inhabitants of this country it was the prevail- 
ing opinion among the wliite people that the vast domain 
since designated as the American Continent, was peopled 
by one common family, of like habits, and speaking the 
same language. The error, however, was soon dispelled 
by observation, which at the same time established the fact 
of great diversity of characteristics, language and physical 
development, the diversity sometimes arising from one cause and 
sometimes from another. The principal division known at this 
time is the Algonquin, embracing among other powerful tribes, 
the Miamis, recognized as one of the most powerful t3'pes and one of 
the most extensive on the continent. Next in rank to the Miamis, 
if, indeed they are not entitled to precedence, are the Delawares. 

Prior to the settlement of this county, all eastern and central 
Indiana, from White River on the northwest to the Ohio on the 
south, was occupied by the Delawares. They were a numerous 
and warlike tribe, very hostile to the whites, and not without good 
and sufficient cause. They had their home, originalh', on the shores 
of the Atlantic and on the Delaware and Sustj^uehanna rivers and 
their tributaries. Here it was that that peaceful hero and truly 
just man, William Penn, found them and made his first treat}- with 
them in 16S2. They were a powerful nation, but lived on terms of 
peace and friendship with the whites, for, during Penn's life, they 
were treated justly and honorably. After his death, things were 
changed. Sometime before 1736, the powerful confederacy of the 
Six Nations had waged a successful war against one of the divi- 
sions of the Delaware tribe, and had compelled it to acknowledge 
its supremacy. Claiming that, by right of conquest, they had ac- 
quired the ownership not only of the lands belonging to the con- 
quered portion, but of the whole territory belonging to the Dela- 
ware tribe, they made a treaty without the knowledge or consent 
of the rightful owners of the soil, transferring their pretended title 
to the whites. 


Six or eight years afterward, tlie Delawares were driven from 
their homes, and, passing beyond the Alleghany Mountains, thej- 
built their wigwams on the River Mahoning, in western Penns^-l- 
vania. Here the}- sojourned until about the j^ear 17S4, when they 
were again compelled to leave their homes and push farther west. 
Their next stopping place was eastern and central Indiana and part 
of Ohio. Here they remained until, by treaties made from time to 
time, they had extinguished their title to all the rich domain, and 
agreed to go beyond the Mississippi River. In a treaty made Jan- 
uary 15, 1S19, at St. Mary's, in the State of Ohio, between Jona- 
than Jennings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin Parke, Commissioners of 
the United States, and the Delaware Nation of Indians, the following 
articles were agreed to: 

Articles of a treaty with the Delawares at St. Mary's in the 
State of Ohio, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and Ben- 
jamin Parke, Commissioners of United States, and the Delaware 

Article i. The Delaware Nation of Indians cede to the 
United States, all their claims to land in the State of Indiana. 

Article 2. In consideration of the aforesaid cession, the United 
States agree to provide for the Delawares a countrj^ to reside in 
upon the west side of the Mississippi, and to guarantee to them 
the peaceable possession of the same. 

Article 3. The United States also agree to pay to the Dela- 
wares the full value of their improvements in the country hereby 
ceded, which valuation shall be made by persons to be appointed 
for that purpose by the President of the United States, and to fur- 
nish the Delawares with 120 horses not to e.xceed in value $40 
each, and a sufficient of pirogues to aid in transporting them to the 
Avest side of the Mississippi, and a quantity of provisions propor- 
tioned to their numbers, and the extent of their journe\'. 

Article 4. The Delawares shall be allowed the use and occu- 
pation of their improvements for the term of three years from the 
date of this treatj' if they so long require it. 

Article 5. The United States agree to pay to the Delawares 
a perpetual annuity of $4,000, \vhich, together with all annuities 
which the United States by former treat)- agreed to pay them, shall 
be paid in silver at any place to which the Delawares may remove. 

Article 6. The United States agree to provide and support a 
blacksmith for the Delawares, after their removal to the west side 
of the Mississippi. 

Article 8. A sum not exceeding $13,312.25, shall be paid by 
the United States, to satisfy certain claims against the Delaware 
Nation. « * * 


Article 9. This treaty after it shall be ratified by the Presi- 
dent and Senate, shall be binding on the contracting parties. 

In accordance with this agreement, all that remained of the once 
powerful, proud and brave Delaware Nation resumed its journey 
toward the setting sun. Even beyond the mighty Father of Waters 
they have found no permanent resting-place. The resistless tide 
of American progress has still pursued them,. The command to 
move farther west has again and again sounded in their ears, and 
the last lone warrior of the Delawares will probably sing his death- 
song to the wild music of the winds and waves of the Pacific Ocean. 
It is sad to contemplate the extinction of a brave though savage 
and untutored race; but that result is sure and inevitable when it 
stands in the way of a highly-civilized people. Nor can we really 
regret it when we consider how vastly the amount of happiness in 
the world is increased. An Indian requires thousands of acres to 
support his family; on the same territory, a hundred happy famihes 
of the Caucasian race will find their homes. 

In speaking of these Indians, I, of course, have called them by 
that English name given them by the first settlers on our Eastern 
shores. The Delaware Ri\-er received its name from an English 
nobleman. Lord De La War, who had an extensive grant of land 
from King James the Second on that stream, and the Indians inhab- 
iting its banks became known as the Delaware Indians. They 
were, in the Indian tongue, called the Lenni-Lenappes, and some- 
times the Chihohockies. Their principal villages in this county 
were in Union Township, on the farm now owned by myself, and 
known as "Arnold's Home." As I have heretofore written a 
sketch of these Indians and the tragic fate of their old chief, I will 
here insert it. It was the first number of a series of papers con- 
tributed by me and published in the Rushville Refuhlicaii, entitled 
"The Reminiscences of an Old Settler": 

" At the time they came to this country, Ben Davis, with a con- 
siderable band of followers, located himself on the pleasant banks 
of the creek which now bears his name, but which ,the Indians in 
tender remembrance of their former home, always called Mahon- 
ing. And I must here say that I think it a pity that the euphonious 
Mahoning has been thrown away, and the harsh and unpoetic Ben 
Davis used instead. Here, within 200 3'ards from where 
I write, stood their wigwams, and here were enacted the various 
phases of savage life. Here, the braves, to barbaric music, per- 
formed their war-dance, chanting their deeds of daring on the bat- 
tle-field : or, smoking their pipes, recounted their successful hunts 
of the swift-footed deer, the sturdy bear or the fierce panther. 
Here the patient squaw nursed her papoose and dreamed pleasant 


dreams of the possible future of her offspring. Here, the gallant 
3'outh wooed and won his dusky bride, and enjo3-ed the perfect 
bliss, the satisfying rapture of knowing that the heart of her who 
is dearer to him than hfe is all his own. Here, the boys threAV the 
tomahawk, wrestled, run and engaged in various athletic sports, to 
fit them for their future career in life. Hundreds of beech trees 
near their encampment bear the numerous scars inflicted by the 
stroke of the tomahawk. On many other trees are outlined the 
figures of men or animals; but the most characteristic memento 
was the scalp-tree. It was a large, tall tree, on wliose smooth bark 
was recorded the number of scalps taken. The number was over 
thirty; the marks were one above another, beginning about two 
feet from the ground and running up twenty or twentj'-five feet. 
The emblem for a man was a round skull-cap; that for a woman, 
the cap surmounted by a roll (to represent the twisted hair) ; that 
for a child, was a broad, horizontal line. This tree was a great cu- 
riosit}^ to strangers, and was calculated to excite deep interest, as it 
was not onl}' the memorial of the hard fought battle, but also of the 
lonely cabin surprised at the dead hour of night, and all its inmates 
ruthlessly butchered. This tree is no longer to be seen; it was 
prostrated by a violent wind, many years since, much to m}' regret. 

" Personalty, Ben Davis was a large and powerful Indian war- 
rior, a deadly foe to the whites; and he had frequently led his 
braves on raids into the dark and bloody ground — the debatable 
land of Kentucky. In most of the battles for the possession of the 
present States of Ohio and Indiana, he had taken an active part. 
He was true to his friends, implacable to his foes, fond of fire 
water, and when under its influence, regardless of his surround- 
ings, would boast of his prowess and the number of scalps he had 
taken. In short, he was a representative man of his race, a fair 
t3'pe of the brave, crafty and boastful Indian warrior. 

" After the defeat of the Indians at Tippecanoe, they were com- 
pelled to sell their lands and again move westward. But old Ben 
Davis, although well aware that he was looked upon with dislike 
and suspicion by the white settlers, still occasionally revisited his 
former hunting-grounds. In the year 1820, he had encamped on 
Blue Creek, some three miles from Brookville. He had. been 
there, perhaps, a week, daily visiting the town and drinking too 
much whisk}'. One daj-, in the Widow Adair's tavern, he was 
boasting of his bloodv deeds, unmindful of the angrj- glances of the 
crowd around him, and, among other things, related how he, with 
his band, surprised a lonely settler in Kentuck}-, kilhng him with 
all his family except one boy, who happened to be a short distance 
from the cabin, when attacked, and who, although hotly pursued, 


eluded his enemies and escaped. Now, in that crowded bar-room 
there was one intensely interested listener, a stern man, who heard 
from the lips of the old chieftain the particulars of the story of his 
family's massacre; for he was that f^3'ing boy who had saved his life 
by fleetness of foot when all his kindred fell. Without a word he 
left the room. The next day Ben Davis did not make his appear- 
ance in Brookville; but it excited but little remark, for he was 
erratic in his movements. The second day, some one passing his 
camp found the old chief cold in death, with a bullet-hole in his 
forehead and his pipe fallen by his side, for he had been sitting by 
his fire, smoking, when he received his sudden message to visit 
the happy hunting-grounds of the Indian's paradise. It was fitting 
death for so fierce a spirit, for, though he had escaped the whist- 
ling shot and trenchant steel in manj'' a battle, he finally fell a vic- 
tim to private vengeance. Public 9pinion, while unanimous as to 
the author of the deed, recognized the terrible provacation and jus- 
tified the act, the more readily as many had lost friends bj' the 
hands of the red man. No judicial investigation was ever had, 
and Mr. Young still held a respectable standing in society." 

Ben Davis never forgave or forgot an injury. When his tribe, 
broken and defeated, was compelled to cede its lands, he held him- 
self aloof, refusing to join in any treaty, though sullenly submitting 
to its requirements, and while bowing to the decrees of an inexor- 
able and resistless destiny, declined, by word or deed, to approve 
or sanction them. His name will be perpetuated by that lovely 
stream, which waters some of the best lands of Rush County. 



County Organization — Early Acts of the County Board 
■ — • Township Organization — Officers Appointed — The 
Board of Justices — Early Revenues — Yearly Finances 
— • The Court Houses — Jails — Later Townships — The 
County Poor — Medical Society — Agricultural — 
Blooded Stock — Roads — Elections — County Officers. 

'HEN Indiana was admitted into the Union, no white 
i settler had pitched his tent upon the land now contained 
j within the borders of Rush County. Yet within five 
years there were many prosperous settlements. At the 
.meeting of the Legislature of 1S21, a strong demand 
'was made for the organization of a new county. In 
1 response to this demand the following enabling act was 

An Act for the formation of a new county west of the counties of 
Franklin and Fayette. 
Section i. J^e it enacted by the General Assemblv of the State 
of Indiana : That from and after the first day of April next, all 
that part of the County of Delaware contained within the following 
bounds, shaU form and constitute a new county, viz. : Beginning 
at the southwest corner of Section 27, in Township 12, north of 
Range 8 east, of the second principal meridian; thence east 
eighteen miles to the southeast corner of Section 28, in Township 
12, north of Range 11 east; thence north to the line dividing 
Townships 15 and 16; thence west eighteen miles to the northwest 
corner of Section 3, in Township 15, north of Range 8; thence 
south to the place of beginning. 

Section 2. The said new county shall be known and desig- 
nated by the name and style of Rush. * « * 

Section 3. Robert Luce, of Franklin County, James Delancy, 
of Bartholomew County, Train Coldwell, of Fayette County, Sam- 
uel jack, of Washington County, and Moses Hilecock, of Dearborn 
County, are hereby appointed commissioners agreeably to the act 
entitled, " an act for fixing of seats of justice in all new counties 
hereafter to be laid off." The said commissioners shall meet at 
the house of Stephen Sims in the said Count}' of Rush, on the first 
Monday in June next, and shall immediately proceed to discharge 
the duties assigned them by law. 


Section 4. The Circuit Courts and all other courts of the 
County of Rush, shall be held at the house of Stephen Sims afore- 
said, until suitable accommodations can be had at the seat of justice 
for said count}-. 

This act shall be in force from and after the first day of April, 

^ Samuel Milroy, 

Speaker House of Rcprescntatizxs. 
Ratliff Boon, 

President of Senate. 
Approved December 31, 1S21. 
Jonathan Jennings, Governor. 

Ors^anization of Tozvnshifs. — The first act of the Board of Com- 
missioners was the division of the territory of Rush County into six 
townships designated and described as follows, to-wit : 

Union. — Beginning at the northeast corner of Section 4, Town- 
ship 15, Range 11; running thence west to the northwest corner of 
Township 14, Range 10; thence east to the southeast corner of Sec- 
tion 33, Township 14, Range 11; thence north to the place of be- 

Ripley. — Beginning at the northeast corner of Union Township; 
running thence west to the northwest corner of Section 3, Town- 
ship 15, Range 10; thence south to the southwest corner of Section 
34, Township 14, Range 8; thence east to the southwest corner of 
Union Township; thence north to the place of beginning. 

Noble. — Beginning at the southeast corner of Union Township; 
running thence to the northwest corner of Section 3, Township 13, 
Range 10; thence south to the southwest corner of Section 34, 
Township 13, Range 10; thence east to the southeast corner of 
Section 33, Township 13, Range 11, to the place of beginning. 

Washington. — Beginning at the northwest corner of Noble 
Township; running thence west to the southwest corner of Ripley 
Township; thence south to the southwest corner of Section 
34, Township 13, Range 8; thence east to the southwest corner of 
Noble Township; thence north to the place of beginning. 

Richland. — Beginning at the southeast corner of Noble Town- 
ship; running thence west to the northwest corner 01 Section 30, 
Township 12, Range 10; thence east to the southeast corner of 
Section 28, Township 12, Range 11; thence north to the place of 

Orange. — Beginning at the northwest corner of Richland Town- 
ship; running thence west to. the northwest corner of Section 3, 
Township 12, Range 8; thence south to the southwest corner of 


Section 27, Township 12, Range S; thence east to the southwest 
corner of Richland Township; thence north to the place of begin- 

Elections were ordered held in each of the foregoing townships 
on April 27, 1822, for the purpose of electing two justices of the 
peace for each township. The polling places designated and the 
names of inspectors appointed are as follows: Noble Township, at 
the house of Thomas Sailor, Richard Hackleman, inspector; Rich- 
land Township, at the house of James Henderson, Jesse Morgan, 
inspector; Orange Township, at the house of Reuben Farlow, 
Charles Fullin, inspector; Union Township, at the house of Rich- 
ard Blacklege, George Hittle, inspector; Washington Township, at 
the house of Richard Thornbur}', John Lower, inspector: Ripley 
Township, at the house of John Montgomery, Montgomeiy McCalb, 

It was further ordered that Samuel Danner be appointed Su- 
perintendent of the school section in Township 14, Range 11; 
Henr}' Sadoras, Township 14, Range 10; George Taj-lor, Town- 
ship 13, Range 11; Christian Clymer, Township 13, Range 10; 
P. H. Patterson, Township 13, Range 9; John Parker, Township 
12, Range 10; Nathan Julian, Township 12, Range 9. 

James McManis was appointed County Treasurer, Benjamin 
Sailors, lister of property, and J. D. Conde, Jacob Oldinger, John 
Cook, road viewers. These constitute the acts of the board at the 
first metting held in the county. The second was an adjourned 
meeting, held at the house of John Lower, on Monda}-, the loth 
day of May, 1822. At this meeting the tavern rates were fixed as 
follows: Whisky, per half pint, I2j4 cents; all foreign spirits, 50 
cents per half pint; peach and apple brandy, 25 cents per half pint; 
gin, 25 cents per half pint; every meal, 25 cents; bed, 6^ cents; 
corn or oats, 12^ cents per gallon; horse standing at haj' over 
night, 18^4^ cents. The assessment of property for the year was 
on each male over twenty-one years of age, 50 cents; for every 
horse, mare, mule or ass, over three years old, 37^ cents; every 
yoke of oxen, over three 3'ears old, 25 cents per head; everj' four- 
wheel pleasure carriage, etc., !pi.25; every two-wheel carriage, 
$1.00; eveiygoid watch, 50 cents; everj' silver watch, 20 cents. At 
the same meeting Benjamin Sailor was allowed $25 for listing the 
property of the county for the 3'ear 1825, which was the first allow- 
ance made out of the treasury of Rush County. 

At a special meeting of the board held at the house of William 
B. Laughlin,June 17, 1822, the commissioners appointed to locate the 
seat of justice, filed their report, but having never been recorded, 
its contents is unknown except as remembered by oldest citizens. 


Conrad Sailors was appointed County Agent, with instructions to 
procure services of a surveyor to la}- off the land donated into 
town lots, and to advertise the sale of said lots in the Indianapolis 
and Brookville papers for the 29th daj' of Jul}', 1822. The town 
was named Rushville, and was ordered laid off after the plan and 
form of the town of Connersville. 

The legislature of 1S24, passed an act which took effect in 
September of said year, abolishing the office of County Commis- 
sioner, and created instead a board of justices composed of one jus- 
tice of the peace from each township. The first board of justices 
w^as composed of the following justices of the peace: William P. 
Priest, E. Leach, Amos Baldwin, Baton Halloway, Elisha Scoville, 
William Beade, Reuben Farlow, William Amber, Alex Young, 
Daniel Cox, Richard Blackledge, Thomas Sailor and Stephen Sims. 
The duties heretofore performed by the commissioners were for the 
nqxt four vears transacted b}- the board of justices. This change 
proved unsatisfactor}' and the law was repealed in 182S. It is prob- 
able that the first license ever issued in the county authorizing the 
sale of intoxicating liquors by retail was to John Perrj^, on the first 
day of November, 1824. The fee for the same was $7.50. The 
petitioners asked that the license be granted on the grounds that it 
would be of pubhc convenience. At the same term of court, Sam- 
uel Cary was granted a license to sell at his residence in the town 
of West Liberty, and in the January following, Job Pugh was 
granted a license authorizing him to sell at his residence in Rush- 

At the Maj' term, 1826, in order to raise sufficient count}" rev- 
enue to meet the public demands, the first assessment was made 
upon the land of the county. Each 100 acres of the first-rate, 50 
cents; second rate, 40 cents; third rate, 30 cents; town lots, so cents 
on every $100 valuation. For the first few years the expenses of 
the county were small, and the principal source of revenue was 
from the sale of lots donated to the county for the location of the 
county seat. The tavern, ferry and merchants' license was another 
source of considerable revenue, and added to these the small assess- 
ment on personal and real property, brought into the treasury a suf- 
ficient sum to keep the machinery of the county in running order. 
For the year 1822 the receipts as shown by the treasurer's report, 
were $289.87. The disbursements were in excess of this amount, 
and so continued in excess of the receipts for many years, and in 
order to meet the current expenses, county orders were issued which 
always sold at a discount. For the ten years ending June i, 1840, 
the receipts of the county aggregated $25,849, and the disburse- 
ments for the same period $866 less than the receipts. The aggre- 


gate for the ten years ending 1850, were: receipts, $118,459, 
expenditures, $113,784; and for a like period ending June, 1S60, 
were: receipts $160,659, expenditures $145,784. The following 
statement will show the receipts and expenditures of the county for 
each year from i860 to 1887. 

Receipts. Expenditures. 

i860 $12,274 6<^ $17,104 76 

1861 22,026 26 16,052 46 

1862 32,899 68 27,692 00 

1S63 15,59223 26,81032 

1864 150,751 02 130,466 70 

1865 i79>722 41 154^700 6s 

1866 100,776 94 126,137 29 

1867 68,461 52 62,440 84 

1868 ■ 101,887 9^ 83,024 16 

1869 108,61541 112,45173 

1870 68,782 00 75,052 70 

1871 73,15423 80,89446 

1872 70,71595 81,27885 

1873 141,72047 127,35402 

1S75 152,33155 119,40000 

1876 197,67222 174,50396 

1877 155,68877 175,14373 

1878 145,21392 145,21361 

1879 125,630 00 118,506 00 

1880 108,173 55 110,152 18 

1881 147,004 01 154,700 00 

1882 204,169 <^g 227,478 00 

^ 1883 118,33420 120,88323 

1S84 200,732 90 82,873 00 

1885 88,655 76 85,334 34 

1886 108,531 09 90,964 09 

1887 82,437 79 84,340 04 

The receipts as above given show the amount actualh' collected 
from the people each year. It is found b}- deducting the balance in 
the treasury at the beginning of each j-ear from the total receipts 
and balance. It shows an aggregate expense of running the county 
for the twenty-seven years ending June, 1887, of a little less than 

Court House. — The place designated by the Legislature for 
the holding of the various courts until a court house should be 
completed, was the residence of Stephen Sims; later, courts were 


held at the residence of Robert Thompson and others until Sep- 
tember, 1S26, when the court for the first time met at the court 
house, which was not completed, and received by the board of 
commissioners, however, until November of said year. The house 
which stood in the centre of the west block of the public square 
was a two-stor}' brick 40x40 feet. The architecture was of that 
plain style common to the public buildings of that day. The walls 
were of hard burnt brick, twenty-two inches thick. The first 
story was eighteen, and the second fourteen feet in height. 'I'he 
lower room was divided into a court room and jury rooms ; the 
upper room was divided into three apartments which were used 
for county offices. This house cost about $2,500, as nearly as 
can be ascertained, and answered the purposes of the county for 
more than twenty years, when on account of its size it became in- 
adequate and was replaced by the present structure. The con- 
tractor was Reynold Cory, by whom the work was commenced in 
the fall of 1823. 

At a special meeting of the board held Januaiy 15, 1846, the 
necessity of building a new court house was urged by the various 
county officials and many of the representative citizens. In com- 
pliance with these demands, the board authorized John L. Robin- 
son, County Clerk, to procure the services of John Elder, an 
architect residing in Indianapolis, to draw plans and specifications 
for a brick court house 50x80 feet and two stories high. The plan 
was submitted at the March term, 1846, and the contract awarded 
said John Elder for the sum of $12,000, with the provision that the 
building should be completed and ready for occupancy on or be- 
fore the first day of March, 1848. The building, which still 
answers the purposes of the county, is plain and simple in its archi- 
tecture, but veiy substantial and commodious. As originall}' de- 
signed, the lower floor is occupied b}- the clerk, auditor, recordei", 
and treasurer's offices, while the upper room is divided into a court 
room, jury rooms and sheriff's office. Each office was provided 
with what was intended to be a fire-proof vault for the safe-keep- 
ing of the records. These in some instances have been torn away 
to give more office room, and now the records would be exposed' 
to the ravages of the flames should fire occur. 

The building, which has stood for almost a half centur}', is still 
in fair condition and would answer the purpose for which it was 
designed for many years to come. Yet a more modern structure 
would add much to the appearance of the city and be more in keep- 
ing with the spirit and progress manifested by the citizens of the 
town and count}', besides furnishing the necessaiy protection for 
the large accumulation of valuable public records. 



yail. — In the settlement of every new country the vicious as 
well as the good were found; and in order to protect society, 
against those who sought frontier life for unworthy purposes and 
punish law^lessness, the pioneer prison was deemed necessary, and 
the plans and specifications for a jail were accordingly adopted. 
These plans provided for a two story building 14x18 feet, eight feet 
between floors; the whole to be raised and constructed of substan- 
tial timbers, hewed one foot square. The floors to be laid of two 
layers square timbers, the upper at right angles with the lower. The 
lower room to be lined with two inch plank ; the entrance to said 
room to be a door in one end, to be closed with iron shutters made 
of bars one-half an inch thick. The upper room to be divided by 
a partition, into two departments, one for females and the other for 
debtors. It must be remembered that at the time of the organiza- 
tion of the county and for many years thereafter, a debtor might 
at the direction of the creditor, be imprisoned for debt. The 
county agent was ordered to contract for the building of the jail, 
on or near the centre of the east block of the public square. The 
contract was awarded to Richard Hackleman, and the building 
completed and received by the board at its November meeting, 
1823. The jail which was similar in construction, and material to 
the prisons in all new counties, was most substantial, and but few, 
if any, prisoners ever escaped. The first jailor was John Hays, 
who, after the expiration of his term of office, moved to Hancock 
County, where he became insane and while tr^-ing to escape from 
jail, where he was confined, by burning out he was himself con- 
sumed by the flames. 

The old jail was condemned as unsafe at the June term of court, 
1844, and a contract for the building of a new one was awarded to 
Royal P. Cobb, at said term for the sum of $3,250. 

The building which stood on the public square, directly east of 
the court house was a stone structure, 20x20 feet and two stories 
high. The foundation wall was built of stone 2 feet thick, 3 feet 
long and 2 feet wide. The floors were laid of cut stone ten inches 
thick, the surface of the lower roor^ was covered with sheet iron, 
and the three windows secured by heavy iron grates. Built in con- 
nection with said jail, of the same material, but of a less substantial 
character, was a jailor's residence, 20x23 feet in dimensions and two 
stories in height. The entire building was surrounded by a fence 
six feet high. The building was completed and received by the 
board January 6, 1845. 

The third jail built by the count}' is still standing. The contract 
for its erection was awarded to Cono^•er & Murphy with the 
provision that it should be completed and ready for use by July, 


1S62. The estimated cost of building was $10,800, but before its 
completion, that amount was increased by several thousand dollars. 
The building, which includes a sheriff's residence, is built of brick, 
and is two stories high. It is well provided with iron cells and is 
convenient in all its appointments. It is located on the southeast 
corner of the public square. 

Orgamzatioi of Other Towiis/iifs. — Green. — Beginning at the 
southwest corner of Section 19, Range 10, Township 14; thence 
east to the half mile stake on the line dividing Sections 22 and 27; 
thence south to the half mile stake on the line dividing Sections 10 
and 15 in Range 10, Township 13; thence west to the county 
line, thence north on county line to the northwest corner of Section 
15, Range 8, Township 14; thence east to the southwest corner of 
Section 7> Township 14 and Range 10; thence south to the place of 
beginning. Organized February 12, 1823. 

Rushville. — August 11, 1823. — Beginning" at the northwest 
corner of Section 15, Township 14, Range S; thence to the half 
mile stake on the line dividing Sections 10 and 15, Township 14, 
Range 10; thence south to the half mile stake on the line dividing 
Sections 10 and 15 in Township 13, Range 10; thence west one- 
half mile; thence south to the southeast corner of Section 33, 
Township 13, Range 10; thence west to the southwest corner of 
Section 31, in said town and range; thence north one mile and a 
half; thence west to the county line, thence north to the place of 

Walker. — Organized March 6, 1826. — Commencing at the 
northwest corner of Section 15, Township 14, Range 8; thence 
south to the half mile stake on the west side of Section 27 in said 
range and township; thence east through the centre of section to 
half miles stake on the east side of Section 28, Township 13, 
Range 9; thence north to the northeast corner of Section 16, 
Range 9, Township 14; thence west to the place of beginning. 

Center. — Organized Jan 4, 1830. — Beginning at the south 
line of Rush Count}-, at the northeast corner of Section 4, Town- 
ship 15, Range 10; thence south by said section line to the south- 
east corner of Section 33; thence west on said township line be- 
tween 14 and 15 to the southwest corner of Section 34, Township 
15, Range 9; thence north on said line to the northwest corner of 
Section 3; thence on said countv line to the place of beginning. 

Jackson. — Organized August 18, 1830. — Beginning at the 
northeast corner of Section 6, Township 14, Range 10; thence 
west to the northwest corner of Section 5, Township 14, Range 9; 
thence south to the southwest corner of Section 20, Township 14, 



Range 9; thence east to the southeast corner of Section 19, Town- 
ship 14, Range 10; thence north to the place of beginning. 

Anderson. — November 9, 1830. — Commencing at the corner of 
Sections 27 and 28, Town 12, Range 9, on the Hne of Decatur 
County; thence north to the line dividing Rushville and Orange 
Township; thence east to the northeast corner of Section 32, Town 
13, Range 10; thence south to the county line; thence west to the 
place of beginning. 

Pose}'. — Beginning on the west line of Rush County at the 
southwest corner of Section 34, Township 14, Range 8; thence 
north along the county line to where said hne intersects the Con- 
gressional Township hne di^'iding Congressional Townships 14 and 
15; thence east along said Congressional Township line to the 
northeast corner of Section 4, Town 14, Range 9; thence south to 
the southeast corner of Section 33, same township and range; 
thence west to where the line intersects the boundary line of said 
county at the place of beginning. 

At the March term of Commissioner's Court, 1859, t^^i'^ was 
a general reorganization into the twelve townships with bound- 
aries as at present. 

The Poor. — An essential element in the practical economy of 
every communitv, and one of the distinctive features of our civili- 
zation, is manifest in the measure of charity extended in providing 
for and maintaining the poor and indigent. A generous public pol- 
icy demands of those who are selected to make the laws that ample 
means be provided to secure this branch of society against destitution. 
Various laws have been enacted by the State for the exercise of a 
spirit of benevolence toward all who are entitled to be recipients of 
public benefactions. Among the first provisions made by the law 
for alleviating the wants of the poor was the appointment of Over- 
seers for each civil township, whose duty it was to hear and e.xam- 
ine into all complaints in behalf of the poor and see that their wants 
were sufficiently provided for. A further provision made it neces- 
sarj' to put as apprentices all poor children whose parents were 
dead, or found unable to maintain them, males until the age of 
twent3'-one, and females until the age of eighteen years. Indigent 
men and women were farmed out on contract by the Overseers on 
the first Monday in Ma}^, annuall}-. In Ma}-, 1S22, the following 
Overseers were appointed : Joseph Smith and Andrew Gilson, 
Union Township; Jonathan Potts and Andrew Thorp, Ripley 
Township; Thomas P. Lewis and Abraham Hackleman, Noble 
Township; Jesse Winship and John Hale, Washington Township; 
Plenry JNIisner and Joseph Lee, Richland Township; Adam Conde 

%^y ^^ ^^^^ 



and William Nelson, Orange Township. This method of caring for 
the poor was continued until 1S40, when, as a better means of pro- 
viding for the wants of this class, a farm had been purchased and 
made read)' for their use. In June, 1839, ^^^ Board of Commissioners 
appointed Alfred Posey as their agent, and instructed him to pur- 
chase for the use of said county a farm conveniently located and suf- 
ficiently large for the above named purpose. In accordance with 
said instructions the agent purchased of John Hale 176 acres of 
land, paying for the same $3,520. No new buildings were erected 
until March, 1855, when, at the instance of the Board of Commis- 
sioners, plans and specifications for the erection of a new building 
were submitted by J. C. Dill, architect. The contract was let to 
Charles Sheaf for $7,543, and a large two story brick building 
50x20 feet; east wing, 48x18 feet, and west wing, 48x32 feet, was 
completed March ist, 1856. Since that time many improvements 
and additions have been made to meet the all increasing wants. 
For the first decade but little can be learned as to cost of caring 
for the poor. It may be safel}' stated, however, that those depend- 
ing upon the chanty of the people for support were few, and the 
amount paid did not become burdensome. Indeed, the system of 
"farming out" and " apprenticing " was almost self-sustaining. 

For the decade of the forties the cost to the county, as nearly 
as could be ascertained, was $6,690; for the fifties, $10,291 ; for the 
sixties, $41,923, and for the seventies, $89,793. For the last seven 
j^ears the annual expenditure is as follows: For 1880, $8,872; 
18S1, $9,097; 1882, $8,990; 1883, $8,053; 18S4, $8,560; 1885, 
$8,263; 1886, $9,508; 1S87, $9,818. These figures show an alarm- 
ing incpease in the number of dependents and may well attract the 
attention of the most thoughtful citizens. 

Medical.* — Rush County and Rushville were both named in 
honor of the renowned phj-sician and philosopher, of Philadelphia, 
Dr. Benjamin Rush, at the suggestion and through the influence 
of his admiring pupil and devoted friend, Dr. William B. Laugh- 
lin. Dr. Laughlin played an important part in the earl}' settlement 
of the county. He surveyed the land, laid out the county seat, 
practiced medicine and exerted a great influence for good in the 
community. He was a man of fine classical education, of firm re- 
ligious principles and of delicate and refined moral perceptions. 
These qualities marked him out as a leader in all good works, and 
gave to the society he assisted in organizing a high and pure tone 
of morality. He was devoted to the cause of education, and in 
1828, opened a classical academy for instruction in the higher 

* Compiled and written by William A. Pugh, M. D. 


branches of education. He erected at his own expense on his own 
ground, a two-story frame building for this purpose. This still 
stands, and, with some additions and changes, is now the dwelling 
of Samuel Poundstone. 

There were also other physicians whose lives and labors were 
consecrated to the benefit of this county, and whose names must 
ever be intimately associated with its development and progress. 
Dr. H. G. Sexton was the next physician to settle in Rushville; he 
came in the j^ear 1S23. He was young, energetic and ambitious, 
profoundly devoted to his profession, and ever striving to elevate the 
standard of its attainments. He was full}- aware of the benefits 
of medical organizations, and would ride through the wilderness 
on horse-back, to attend a medical meeting at Indianapolis, Law- 
renceburg, Brookville, and other equally distant points. When 
the Legislature divided the State into medical districts, he was one 
of the first to come forward to organize the society of the Fifth 
Medical District of Indiana. This, for many j-ears, did a good 
work in the profession. It was succeeded bj^ a union organization, 
and this, again, Avas superseded in our county by the Rush Medical 
Society, which still flourishes in all its pristine vigor. 

Thus, our county has maintained for the last forty-five years a 
medical society whose object has been to increase medical knowl- 
edge and maintain the dignity and honor of the profession. This 
devotion to medical science, as manifested b}^ the keeping-up of 
these organizations, has received its reward in the high position 
the physicians of Rush County occupy in district, state and national 
medical bodies, and the almost entire absence of quacker}- in our 

Dr. William Frame was the third physician to settle in our 
town. He was a cautious, prudent, skillful practitioner, and largely 
enjoyed the confidence of the communit}^. He helped, by precept 
and example, to impart a high tone to societv. Dr. W. H. Martin, 
though coming somewhat later, is justly entitled to rank as one of 
the pioneer phj'sicians and public-spirited men who contributed 
largely to the development of our country. Dr. Jefferson Helm, 
deceased, was skillful, talented, untiring, of pleasing address and 
suave manners, and exerted a wide influence in the community. 
He bore his part in all private and public enterprises for the devel- 
opment of the resources of our county. These men were all 
calculated to mold and impress the society in which they lived. 

Husk jlledical Soc/etv. — Historj' furnishes no certain data as to 
the first medical organization in Rush Count}'. Whilst her first 
medical men were zealous supporters of such institutions, and for 
many years belonged to district and other societies, no organization 


confined exclusively to Rush County existed until about the year 

Prior to this date, Rush County was connected with Wayne, 
Union, Faj'ette, Franklin and Dearborn counties, forming what 
was called the Fifth Medical District of Indiana, taking its organ- 
ization about 1828 and lasting about ten years. The meetings 
were held twice a year alternatel}' at Richmond, Indiana, Conners- 
ville. Liberty, BrookviUe, Lawrenceburg and Rushville, the mem- 
bers making the trip on horseback from the various points to the 
place of meeting. 

The prominent members of this society were men of merit and 
high professional standing. In Fayette Count}' they were Drs. 
RilandT. Brown, now of Indianapolis; Philip Mason, G. R. Chit- 
wood, — Miller, Moffett, John Arnold. In Union County, Drs. Z. 
Custerline, Rose, Orpheus Everts, Sr. In Dearborn Count}', Dr. 
Brower. In Franklin, Drs. Heymond and Berr3\ In Rush County, 
Drs. W. B. Laughlin, Horatio G. Sexton, William Frame, Matthew 
Smith, Jefferson Helm, Ben Duncan and William Bracken. After 
the demise of this societ}', an organization was effected under a 
special charter from the Legislature of the State, possessing powers 
to examine and license candidates for the practice of medicine 
within the limits of the organization. This was called the "Indiana 
Medical Institute," and embraced the counties mentioned above as 
constituting the Fifth District Medical Societ}-. The Institute was 
short-lived and inefficient, only maintaining a very feeble existence, 
terminating its career about the year 1844 or 1S45. 

In 1846, the first Medical Society confining its jurisdiction to 
county lines, was formed, and was called "Rush County Medical 
Society." Among the leading and working members of this so- 
ciety, we find the names of Drs. H. G. Sexton, William H. Martin, 
William Frame, William Bracken, John Howland, Jefferson Helm. 
Its juvenile members were Drs. James W. Green, Marshall Sexton, 
Erastus T. Bussell and Nathan Tompkins, all young men just en- 
tering upon professional life. Dr. John Howland was elected 
President at the organization, and Dr. Marshall Sexton, Secretary. 

This was the first to adopt and accept the " Code of Ethics," as 
published by the American Medical Association, which had just 
been organized. The first county society published this code of 
ethics in pamphlet form, and distributed liberally amongst the phy- 
sicians and people of the county. 

The first Board of Censors were very liberal in their notions of 
professional qualifications, and consequently were rather lax in their 
examinations for membership, admitting almost every one applying. 
Many illiterate, inefficient, unskillful and unprofessional men were 


taken into its fold. It died of its own liberality, it fell of its own 
weight andceased to have an existence shortl}' after 1S50; andthough 
its lease of life was short, there can be no doubt that it effected 
much good. It was the first to formulate regular medicine and 
sow the seeds of good principles of high professional attainments 
and of an honorable code amongst the medical men of the countrj'. 
It had also the good effect of disseminating among the people the 
same principles of justice between phj-sician and patient and be- 
tween the public and the medical profession. 

In the year 1857, the following ph3'sicians of Rush County met 
in the court house, in the month of Ma}', and organized the present 
society, calling the compact "The Rush County Medical Societ}-": 
H. G. Sexton, Wilham Bracken, John Moffett, A. C. Dillon, James 
W. Green, John Arnold, John J. Mlon, Alvin Curley, I. H. Spur- 
rier, R. D. Mauzy, James Thompson and William A. Pugh. 
Dr. H. G. Sexton was chosen the first President and was annually 
elected to the same position until his death in 1S65, a period of 
about eight years. Dr. John Moffet was at the same meeting 
chosen the Recording Secretar}? and was retained in the place until 
the j-ear 1S74, a period of seventeen j^ears. For a period of three 
years and a half after its organization, the career of the Rush Medical 
Society was in the highest degree satisfactorj'. Many scientific 
papers were read and discussed, an increasing taste for literarj' and 
professional work was generated, free discussions upon medical 
topics and careful preparation for society work incited the mem- 
bers. In addition to all, the Secretary gave a ver}- careful and 
close synopsis of the proceedings, papers and debates, fiUing quite a 
large volume. 

In the midst of this prosperitj^, the fire-fiend visited the town 
and included in its ravages the office of Dr. John Moffet, with his 
whole librar}^ the society records and everything belonging to it. 
At the December meeting in 1S61, the Secretary, Dr. Moffet, arose 
and made the following statement: 

"Mr. President and Gentlemen: I have the unpleasant mes- 
sage to deliver to you this morning, that the entire records of this 
Society were consumed in the late fire which occurred in Rushville. 
We think we can truthfully say, none can more than I regret the 
loss which has come upon us. Man}' scientific organizations before 
this one have met with similar disasters. 

This Association has done much to promote the interests of the 
medical profession of Rush County and the communitj- in which it 
exists. For three years and a half it has held regular meetings, 
always having a sufficient attendance to constitute a quorum for 
business. Important medical subjects have been closelj' examined, 


and extended records of its proceedings were kept. This is all lost, 
so far as the letter is concerned, but I trust that most of us have 
treasured up in the storehouse of the memory the substantial doc- 
trines which have been passed in review during the existence of our 
httle band of medical brethren." 

A rapid review of the work which had been accomplished was 
then gi%'en, from memory, by the Secretary; his remarks having 
been carefully written out for the purpose of reading to the Society. 
The paper was ordered to be spread upon the minutes, so that it 
should form an introduction to the new volume of transactions. 
After hearing the remarks, the society adjourned for one hour. 
At the afternoon session. Dr. W. A. Pugh offered the following 
preamble and resolution, viz. : 

" Whereas, The records, papers, books and documents of the 
Rush County Medical Society were destroyed by fire in the late 
disaster; and, whereas, a radical change in the organic laws has 
been contemplated, therefore, 

" Resolird, That we now go into an entirely new organization ; 
and that no members of the old society shall be considered as mem- 
bers of the new one now to be organized, who do not enter it in 
the regular constitutional way. 

" And he it further resolved^ That no article of the old constitution 
or by-laws shall be binding upon this, the debts of the old society 
being the only exception." 

The preamble and resolutions were at once unanimously 
adopted, without discussion or debate. Dr. H. G. Sexton, the 
President of the society now offered a skeleton constitution and by- 
laws, which, he remarked, were in conformity to the meaning and 
intent of the resolutions just passed. This constitution was taken 
up and adopted by articles, with such amendments as the society, 
in the committee of the whole, suggested. 

At this meeting, the name of the " Rush Medical Society " was 
adopted, and has been retained until the present time. From 1861 
until 1S76, the same organization continued with uninterrupted 
prosperit}-. In that year, the State Medical Society made a very 
radical change in its organic union; and was organized upon a basis 
of representation, the members to consist of delegates sent by aux- 
iliary count}' societies. After much hesitation and with much 
reluctance to again change, the Rush Medical Societv unanimously 
agreed to become auxiliary to the State Medical Society, and at 
once changed its Constitution and By-Laws so as to accord with 
the State organization. The name, however, was retained. These 
constitute the only changes in the organic laws of the Societ3^ 

The scientific and literary work has been progressive, improv- 


ing and of the highest order of merit. Two large volumes of 
transactions have been filled since the destruction by fire of the first 
one. The officers are elected annually on the first Monday in May 
of each year, and consist of a President, Vice President, Recording 
Secretary, Corresponding Secretarj', Treasurer, Board of Censors 
and Librarian. At the annual election. Chairmen of the following 
sections are chosen, viz.: Surgery, Theory and Practice, Obstet- 
rics and Gynecolog3% Therapeutics and New Remedies, On Dis- 
eases of Children, On Epidemics. The Chairman of each of these 
sections is required to make an annual report on the different 
subjects assigned them, collecting such materials from the members 
as may be possible during the j-ear. The Societ}' carries on its 
literary and scientific work by an Executive Committee, also chosen 
at the annual meeting. It is the duty of this committee to carefully 
prepare a programme for each and . every monthly meeting in the 
year, and to see that members come up to the work assigned them. 

The Constitution provides that every member shall do some 
literarj^ work in the course of the year, either verbal or written. 
The Society holds monthl}' meetings upon the first Mondaj^ of each 
month, all the year round, and has missed but very few meetings 
in the twenty-two j^ears of its existence. The amount of medical 
literature in the possession of the members, and the verj^ full 
reports made by the different Secretaries, will give the future his- 
torian an ample storehouse from which to draw in writing the 
history of medicine for coming generations. 

The Societ}'- embraces in its membership almost ever}- reputable 
practitioner of medicine in the Count}' of Rush, and its influence for 
good is felt alike by the citizens and the profession. There, is per- 
haps, no countjr in the State as free of irregular practitioners as 
Rush Countv; and the reason thereof is largely due to the influence 
of Rush Medical Society. In the twenty odd years of its organiz- 
ation, there has been not a single professional quarrel; and as the 
result of the influence of this Societj-, the community of Rushville 
and the different neighborhoods of the county have been remark- 
ably free from the professional bickerings and jealousies so common 
to the profession of medicine. The unanimitj' and kindly feeling 
of Rush County ph3'sicians toward one another are admired bj- 
every one cognizant of the fact, and it is in a large measure attri- 
butable to the influence of the Society upon its members. 

Agricultural. — The great advantage an agricultural society 
would be to the farmer, the mechanic, and, indeed, to the whole 
community, had long been felt, and an attempt to supply this want 
had been made by the organization of a Rush County Agricultural 
Society; but it was soon seen that there were radical defects in the 


plan on which it was gotten up tliat would insure its early dissolu- 
tion. The thinking men of the county feehng the necessity of such 
a society, counseled together, and decided on the joint-stock system 
as most likely to be a permanent institution, and to give satisfaction 
to the countr}" by developing its resources and increasing its 
material prosperity and wealth. These earnest advocates of pro- 
gress and improvement met on the 23d of May, 1857, and passed 
the following preamble and resolutions, and adopted the constitution, 
which I give, as it plainly declares the objects and plan of the new 
organization, viz. : 

"Whereas, We, the undersigned citizens of Rush County and 
State of Indiana, are desirous of promoting the prosperity and en- 
couragement of agricultural and mechanical pursuits, including the 
cultivation of fruits, vegetables and ornamental gardening, improve- 
ments in all branches of mechanism and arts, the improvement of 
the races of all useful and domestic animals, and the general ad- 
vancement of rural and household economj^, and domestic manu- 
factures, and the dissemination of useful information upon all the 
above-named subjects; and believing that the present agricultural 
society of Rush County, as at present organized, is not adequate to 
carry out the above objects so fullv as desired, therefore, 

" Be it Know^n, That we, whose names are hereunto subscribed, 
propose and agree to form a joint-stock company, under the name 
and style of the ' Rush County x^gricultural Society,' the capital 
stock of said companj- not to be less than $1,200, and to be 
divided into shares of $10 each, and to be divided as nearly equally 
as practicable among the several townships of said county, in a ratio 
to the population of the said several townships respectively. And 
said company propose to organize in all respects in strict confor- 
mity with all laws of the State of Indiana in force, for the encour- 
agement of Agriculture, and in entire subordination to all rules and 
regulations of the 'Indiana State Board of Agriculture;' and that 
said stock shall be used by said company in aid of all purposes 
properly connected with the State and County Agricultural Societies, 
and the objects above specified. It is not intended to conflict with 
the present Rush County Agricultural Society, but to aid the same, 
and become instituted therefor. And to attain the above-named 
objects, we adopt the following constitution. 

" Article i. Said company shall be governed by the same 
number and kind of officers as required for the Rush County Agri- 
cultural Society, and the present board of officers elected for the 
ensuing 3'ear, of said Society, shall be and are hereby adopted as 
the officers of the new Societ}- for the ensuing year, provided that 


said officers now elected consent to serve as such, and become 
stockholders of said company. 

" Article 2. Said new Society agrees to take the grounds 
and all the appurtenances to the same belonging, now owned by 
the former Rush Count}- Agricultural Society, and assume and pay 
all liabilities and debts of said old Society of everj- nature. But 
said new Society will require a good and sufficient deed for said 
ground when all said liabilities shall have been paid off. 

"Article 3. Said new Society shall hold an annual fair upon 
said grounds, and offer premiums for the various products and 
articles exhibited for each year not less than $600 for each fair. 

"Article 4. The stockholders and their famiHes shall enter 
the gates free of charge; and a stockholder's family shall consist 
of all who reside with him under twent^'-one years of age, and all 
females who reside with him of any age whatever. 

"Article 5. All tolls, rents and profits that may arise from 
said fairs and grounds, and property owned bj' said company-, shall 
be owned b}^ and under the control of the stockholders; but they 
shall not divert the said grounds from the purposes above specified, 
except upon full payment therefor to those v.ho have contributed or 
may contribute for the pa^-ment of the purchase-mone}' therefor. 

" Article 6. That Isaac B. Loder, Hugh B. Cowan and 
Stephen Donaldson are hereby selected as a committee to draft 
By-Laws for the government of said Societ}^ and report the same 
at the next meeting of the Board. 

" Article 7. The annual members shall have a right to one 
vote each in the election of officers, provided the}' become members 
of the Society prior to said election, and one stockholder shall have 
ten votes. 

" Article 8. The stock of said Society shall be transferable, 
but no person shall hold more than one share, except by consent of 
two-thirds of the Board of Directors." 

Article No. 7 has been since changed so that the annual member 
has no vote, and the stockholder only one. This is much better, as 
under the old rule, there was a useless incumbrance of a multitude 
of votes. John Megee, in accordance with the above arrangement, 
was the first President; Stephen Donaldson, Secretary. Daniel 
Wilson was elected General Superintendent, for which he was most 
admirably qualified, and Thomas V. Mitchell, Marshal of the Stock- 
ring; this was also the right man in the right place. The time for 
the fair was fixed for the i6th, 17th, iSth and 19th days of Sep- 
tember. The Board held many meetings this year, for there was a 
great deal to be attended to to make the enterprise a success ; but the 
Board were earnest workers in the good cause, and never desisted 


until they had laid the strong and broad foundation on which our 
present proud and successful system of fairs rests. At a meeting 
of the Board, on December 26, 1S67, the Treasurer made the fol- 
lowing report: 

Amount received from all sources $2,201 10 

Amount paid out on orders and premiums 2,127 3*^ 

Balance $ 73 72 

Amount of assets in treasury 755 00 

Total assets $828 72 

This is a good showing for the first fair under the new SA'Stem. 
They then proceeded to the election of officers for the next year, 
which resulted as follows: Abner Conde, President; W. S. Hall, 
Vice President; Ben Pugh, Secretarj^, and J. S. Campbell, Treas- 
urer. The twelve Directors were the following: W. Rice, Sr., 
for Anderson Township; J. W. Shawhan, for Washington; W. C. 
Stewart, for Richland; John T. Gregg, for Noble; O/V. Meredith, 
for Posey; James Downey, for Jackson; Bluford Riley, for Walker; 
J. T. Hinchman, for Union; Amon Bosly, for Orange; D. S. Hol- 
loway, for Ripley; S. S. McBride, for Center; E. C. Buel, for 

The record as made by Ben Pugh, is admirable, the manuscript 
is splendid and the account of the proceedings clear and business- 
like. At this time, the Society only had eleven and one-fourth 
acres of land, bought of Joseph H. Lakin, May 12, 1856, for 
$950, but the Societ}' bought more from time to time from various 
parties, until they now, in 1879, have twentj^-six acres and 
133 rods, which is sufficient for Fair purposes. The Fair has 
been a success in every respect, not only in promoting and 
developing the various interests for which it was instituted, 
but financially. It has been managed prudentl)-, made emphatically 
a Fair for the people; no particular class have been allowed to run 
it in their interest. It is a general purpose Fair, where there is 
something to interest and amuse everybody. This result has been 
secured b}' electing as Directors men of sound judgment. Though 
comparisons are said to be odious, I cannot refrain from contrast- 
ing the management of it with that ot Faj^ette County. The fast 
horsemen and sportsmen got the control of things there, and it soon 
degenerated into mere races, when gambling, drunkenness and all 
kindred vices became so rampart that the farmers ceased to attend 
or allow their families to be exposed to its contaminating influence. 
The result was that the Fair ceased to be attended and, consequently, 
failed to pay expenses; the company became bankrupt, and the 


Fair grounds were sold to paj- the debts. Since then, a new com- 
pany has bought the Fair grounds and has held two Fairs under 
more favorable auspices. 

The five purchases amounted to near twentj'-seven acres and 
cost $4,520.87. The usual amount of halls for various purposes, 
stables, sheds, and all necessarj' buildings have been erected and 
paid for out of the earnings of the Society. The grounds are 
naturallv beautiful and admirably adapted for fair purposes. The 
south side of the grounds are high, with the exception of a valley 
on either side of a small stream entering on the south; this valley 
forms the stock-ring. On the east and on the west the banks 
gradually rise, forming a natural amphitheatre, where the specta- 
tors can sit and view the stock brought into the ring. These beau- 
tiful slopes are shaded by trees. The north three-fifths of the 
grounds are level bottom lands, in which is seen a fine half-mile 
track. This is overlooked by the higher grounds on the south, 
affording an opportunity for the thousands of spectators to see the 
trials of speed. The south-east quarter, south of the time-ring, 
and east of the stock-ring is shaded by a fine sugar-maple grove, 
thickened by a plantation of locust and soft-maple. It is in this part 
of the grounds that all the exhibition-halls and offices are found. 

Blooded Stock. — - A history of Rush Count}- would not be com- 
plete without a chapter on her career as a stock producer. With 
her natural advantages as an agricultural region unsurpassed, she 
stands pre-eminentl}' first among her sisters as the home of some of 
the finest animals ever brought before the public. Breeders, whose 
reputation, — fairly merited, — and not bounded b}- State Unes, have 
given to Rush Count}^ a name, the lustre of which shall not pale as 
the years go b}-. Among the earliest breeders of horses we 
mention John Gray, grandfather of John T. Gray, the well known 
horse man of Union Township. He had "Old Alec" in 1S35, a 
Kentucky horse, from whom descended some very valuable strains; 
this was one of the first in the county. He was the sire of young 
Alec and the noted Tuckahoe horse; the dam, a Kentuckj- 
mare, hence the name " Tuckahoe." At the death of John Gray 
the son, William, bought these horses. Tuckahoe lived to be twenty- 
four years old and died on the Gray farm. The next horses in 
this stable were: Jerry, b}' Archie Lightfoot, a pacer of great speed; 
Bedford, a heav}^' draft, and Gray Eagle; these horses were kept 
here about 1S50. The next year Mr. Gray paid $950 for a Proud 
American horse: this was an enormous price in those days. He 
was the sire of Caldwell's " Proud American" of Fayette County, 
Indiana: this horse was sold by Mr. Gray to a Mr. Haldeman, of 
Orange Township, and subsequently sold at Sheriffs sale in Rush- 


ville, for $i,ooo, and was taken to Illinois. In i860, William Gray 
bought of John Shawhan a three j-ear old colt, bj^ a horse known 
as Shawhan's Tom Hal, he by Bald Stocking, of Kentuck}', and he by 
imported Tom Hal, of Canada. This famous horse, known among 
horsemen ever3'where as Gray's Tom Hal was kept here in the 
Gra}' family for twenty-four years and was cared for during all 
these years by John T. Gray, who was his owner at the time of 
his death. This horse is the sire of Little Gvpsie, 2:22; Limber 
Jack, 2:1814 ; Bay Billie, 2:i33/(; Mattie Bond", 2:2714; ; Sy Alger, 
2:31^^; sire of the dam of Buffalo Girl, 2:i2;^'3; also sire of the 
dam of St. Dennis, 2.23. Mr. Gray also owned Henry, by Old 
Stockbridge, of Cincinnati. At the death of AVilliam Gray the 
stables came into possession of the son, John T. Here are found a 
rare lot of well bred stallions. Among these are Medoc Hamble- 
tonian and his son Dock, Jr., splendid specimens and al\Mays 
premium winners in their class. A son of Tom Hal, a worthy scion 
of his illustrious sire. At this stable are kept the horses belonging 
to the Shawnee S'tock Association, viz.: Favory, by French Mon- 
arch, a son of the great Ilderim. This horse (Favorv) took first 
prize at the World's Exposition, at Paris in 1878, and first premium 
at St. Louis, in 1880. Was a government approved stallion in 
France, and weighs 2280 pounds. Another imported Draft horse, 
Coco is also kept here; this horse was imported by Bridgeland & 
Barry, of Indianapolis. He is a well bred horse and weighs iSoo 
pounds. Frank Hale, an inbred Morgan horse belongs to the 
Shawnee Breeding Association, and is found at the Gra}' stables. 
"Within the last few years thoughtful breeders like General Withers, 
have been investigating the source of 'trotting instinct,' analyzing 
the blood that flows in the veins of the fastest and most enduring 
race and road horse and have made the discovery that the Vermont 
Morgan has contributed a greater share of it than any other branch 
of the trotting family. As a result of this discovery there is a re- 
vival of admiration for this truly great class." "Frank H." is a 
magnificent looking animal, in color a dapple brown with black 
points and a star in forehead and snip. He is the best son of Ben 
Franklin and has shown himself at the Rutland County Fair, Ver- 
mont, before 5)000 people to be eleven seconds faster than the Rut- 
land track was ever trotted before by a three-year-old colt, and 
this track has been in use thirty years. Dam of "Frank H." was 
by the Lapham horse, and he by Hill's Black Hawk. The sire of 
" Frank H.", Ben Franklin, was by Daniel Lambert, and he by 
Ethan Allen (record with running mate, 2:12), and he bv Vermont 
Black Hawk. 


Old Blue Bull. — If there is anything Rush Count}' ever made 
a national reputation on, it is her Blue Bull trotting stock. Until a 
few years ago the name of James Wilson was known on every turf 
in the United States as the owner of a sire of more trotting horses 
than an}' six stallions in the country, with probably the excep- 
tion of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. But during the last two years 
the performances of the progeny of this famous horse has placed 
him indisputably at the head of all sires of trotting horses. 

The money that has been left in Rush County from the sales of 
Blue Bull colts can be computed by thousands. The history of 
this famous horse has been published as follows: " He is the Abra- 
ham of pacing sires, the greatest exponent, living or dead, of the 
power that pacing blood exerts in producing trotters. Reared in 
the wilds of Indiana, his early life passed in forced seclusion, gifted 
with marvelous speed at a pacing gait, but overtaken by the mis- 
fortune of a broken knee, which prevented him placing a sensational 
mark on the blackboard, and, greatest of all — without brithinght of a 
long descent from some of the great trotting families, to commend 
him to breeders, vet, by his own intrinsic worth, he emerged from 
obscurity, overcame all these obstacles and placed his name first 
among the list of winning sires. His pedigree does not fulfil the 
requirements of any school of breeding — no royal blood lines to 
Messenger, Bashaw or Morgan are found in his veins — no mares 
of accepted pedigree or merit graced his harem, except the dam of 
Elsie Good, until towards the close of his life when winner after 
winner from common mares hailed him as sire and then the excite- 
ment ran high. Approved brood mares were sent by the car load 
to his home in Rush Count}-, Ind. ; and scores of buyers in quest of 
young Blue Bulls, were attracted to that neighborhood. 

" But Blue Bull's career is a special study. He is not a pen- 
sioner on birth-place, breeding, opportunities or circumstances, for 
his fame, present, and to come — nothing seems to check the speed 
producing" elements of his nature, which descended in a remarkable 
degree through all kinds of dams. Wilson's Blue Bull was foaled 
in 1S58, and is described by one who knew him well as a dark 
chestnut horse 15^ hands high, star in forehead and one white 
hind foot, sloping, heavy muscled shoulders, extraordinary strong 
loin, powerful quarters, the very best of legs except a broken knee, 
high headed and stylish, a silken coat and in general appearance 
and conformation, as line as a thoroughbred. He was bred by 
Elijah Stone, of Wheatland, Ind., and got by Pruden's Blue Bull, 
son of Merring's Blue Bull, commonly known as Ohio Farmer. It 
has been well said of the great and good in the human family that 


they had generally good mothers. As the stock of Blue Bulls 
progenitors was of decidedly common stamp, attention should be 
turned to his dam in summing up his superior merits. Mr. Wallace 
says she was by a horse called Truxton; but those who were inti- 
mately acquainted with the history of this horse, George and Louis 
Loder, Daniel Dorrell and the Wilsons, stoutl}^ maintain that she 
was by Blacknose, the thoroughbred son of Medoc. Passing on 
to a consideration of what Blue Bull has accomplished we find 
that Purity was the first to attract attention. She was sold for 
$3,000, and bid fair to trot in 2:20. Ella Wilson, $7,000; Mila 
C., record 2:2614^, then sold for $10,000; St. Dennis, $5,500; Silver- 
ton, $6,000; IVIamie, $5,000; Richard, $7,500; Bertie, $7,500; 
Ethel, $9,000; Elsie Good, $5,000. Five of his colts have trotting 
records under 2 :20." 

Samp Wilson, a son of the well-known James Wilson, of Blue 
Bull fame, one of the greatest drivers of horses in the country', has 
a stable of fine blooded animals at the old Wilson farm in this 
county. Among these we mention Lord Harold, by Harold, sire 
of Maud S. and Beaumont. 

R. J. Wilson, son of the late James Wilson, and one of the 
most successful and prudent horsemen in this countv, has on his 
farm the following well-bred stallions: Wallkill Prince, Kinder- 
garten and Athlone. 

Mr. R. J. Wilson, in the fall of 1886, purchased a rich-blooded 
colt at Glenview Stock sales in Kentucky, viz. : Cherrywood. For 
this colt Mr. Wilson paid $3,025, the highest price ever paid for a 
weanling. Cherrywood is by the famous horse Nutwood. 

Prominent among the owners of standard animals we mention 
Oliver Posey & Son, owners of Pau and Russia, crossed closely 
with the best trotting strains in the country. These colts must be 
speed producers or horsemen must lose confidence in pedigrees. 

Mr. W. A. Jones, the well-known trainer and breeder, of Rush- 
ville, the owner of Elgin Boy and Raven Bov, has purchased the 
fashionably bred horse Chesterwood, for $5,280. He is a splen- 
did representative of the great Nutwood, and a trotter himself. 

Legal Tender, Jr., owned by J. M. Amos in Rush County, is 
one of the finest horses in this section of Indiana, and has endowed 
his progeny with wondrous speed. He is the sire of such well- 
known trotters as Lowland Girl, 2 :ig}4 ', Wonderful (a pacer, 2 :24), 
Lady Elgin, trotter, 2:25i<j^; Davy Crockett, pacer, 2:26; Legal R., 
trotter, 2:30; Bob Ingersoll, 2:30; Laura J., 2:275^; Legal Star, 
pacer, 2:26; Mattie H., trotter, 2 :2 7'/(. Legal Tender, Jr., is a 
standard horse, and has a record to his credit of 2:27. He is by 
Legal Tender (1784), sire of Red Cloud. 


Henry Fry, of Union Township, a well-known breeder of trot- 
ting horses, is the owner of Wilson, a son of old Blue Bull, dam 
Queen, by Gray's Tom Hal, and Falmouth, by Ajax. 

J. M. Gwin, the well-known horse man of Rushville, has done 
much to advance the interests of our people in this particular line. 
He is now the owner of Alwood, a young horse of most excellent 
form, carriage and color, a beautiful chestnut sorrel, foaled Jul}' 3, 
1SS3. He is by the great sire, Almont 33. 

Mr. Gwin's hrst stallion was John Dillard, an excellent young 
horse, afterwards Tom Brown, Jr., by Tom Brown, he by Crazy 
Nick. Subsequently, Mr. Gwin kept Morris' Almont, a famous 
horse, that has left some good blood lines in our count}'. 

Fl3'ing Dutchman, b}^ Flying Dutchman, brought from Ohio b}^ 
G. T. Aultman in 1874. ^^ ^^''^^ ^ ^"^ pacer, and left valuable 
blood in the county. 

Joe T. Johnson owns the following popularl}' bred horses : Nut- 
gold, b}^ Nutwood; Brussels, by Blue Bull; Vulcan, a heavy draft 
Percheron, and one of the best horses ever brought to America, is 
closel}' related to the finest animals which are the recognized heads 
of popular Percheron famihes. 

J. F. Gosnell, owner of Commander, by Blue Bull. Mr. Gos- 
nell has several fillies and young horses, the get of this stallion, 
which are recognized as very promising. 

Gus Glidden, of Raleigh, one of the great drivers and trainers 
of the country, now has several, among which we mention: 
Almont Brunswick, by Almont Chief; Samuel I, by Grand Sentinel. 
He was the owner of Forest, for which he received $16,000; sold 
Grafton for $15,000. 

Cloud Mambrino, owned by Alfred Loder, of Raleigh, a valu- 
able horse of Rush County, died eight or ten years ago. Sire of 
Little Alfred, record 2:20; Billv Lambertson, 2:28^. Mr. Loder 
is now the owner of Gold Edge, a Hambletonian of fine promise 
and standard. He also owned Sam Patch, a son of old Blue Bull 
by an Archie mare. He was the owner cf Lowland Girl, 2:193/, 
and developed this wonderful mare. 

R. W. Rich, of Falmouth, Indiana, and Charles E. Rich, of 
Raleigh, are the owners of Swisher, a splendid specimen of the 
horse family, by the great Hambletonian Tranby. These gentle- 
men are also owners of several excellent youngsters which prom- 
ise well for the future. 

W. M. Cook, of Glenwood, is the proprietor of Glenwood 
stock farm. He owns Gloster, the best son of Blue Bull. The 
dam of Gloster is by old Jerrv, dam, a messenger mare 
brought from Kentucky-. There seems to be no reason to doubt 



that this horse will sire race hoi-ses. Mr. Cook has a six-year-old 
gelding by Gloster, who paced a mile in 2:24^, with a few days' 
handling. He also has colts by Wallkill Prince and Blue Vein. 

A horse known as Archie Lightfoot, about 1858-59, was kept 
at John L. Legg's (Raleigh) ; this horse was the sire of the first 
nati\'e Rush County horses ever trained for speed in the county. 
Among these we name: Topsc}-, Belle Loder, Brown Dick and 
Bob Lindse)'. He was subsequentl}' the property of AVilliam S. 
Hall and Thomas Legg. At this same place Mr. Brook Legg 
keeps the well-known standard bred horses Ajax and Artemus. 
Mr. Legg is a horseman of large experience and is regarded as a 
first-class horseman. 

There are many other breeders of more or less importance 
within the county. Indeed, there are but few of the most progres- 
sive farmers that do not give much attention to the breeding of the 
best class of all kinds of stock. 

Avoutcs of Travel. — The roads traversed by the pioneersettlers 
of Rush County were first the Indian trails, which were the only 
avenues of travel established bj- the Delaware tribe, which inhab- 
ited this county at the time of the coming of the first settler. 
These were succeeded by neighborhood roads until the organiza- 
tion of the county, when county roads were established according 
to the demands of public convenience. The primitive roads were 
little more than a path " blazed out," by which travelers might with 
some degree of confidence, go from one settlement to another with- 
out fear of losing their course. These roads often traversed low, 
wet land and marshy districts, and in order to make them passable 
were cross laid with logs and rails, and were generally kno\\'n as 
" cordurovs," which, according to an eminent American humorist, 
"has decreased the length of many a spinal column." When the 
necessities of enlarged travel became apparent, the demand for 
better constructed roads became quite universal, and in response to 
this demand state roads were surveyed and located at the expense 
of the state. 

The first county road ordered to be viewed was described as 
beginning at the east line of Rush County, at the corners of Sec- 
tions 21 and 28, Town 12, Range 11; thence on a due west line to 
the western boundary of said township. The second one viewed 
commenced where Whetzel's Trace crossed the- west line of 
Fayette, running thence west, the nearest and best route to the 
house of Richard Thornbur}--; thence in the same direction to the 
east line of Shelb}' Count}'. These routes were, in the opinion of 
the viewers, practicable, and would be of great public utility and 
convenience, and were accordingly laid out. 


After many years of experience with dirt roads, which until 
1850, were the only public thoroughfares in the state, it was 
thought proper to authorize bv legislative, enactment, as man}- older 
states had done, the construction of roads whereby the products of 
the farm might be transported to meet the demands of trade. In 
response to this demand the general assembly of 1849, authorized 
the incorporation of stock companies for the construction of plank 
roads. In all but few of the counties of the state such roads were 
built and operated, but after a few years were abandoned as im- 

Since i860, there have been constructed on all the principal 
thoroughfares leading out of Rushville, as well as on many of the 
cross roads in various parts of the county, gravel roads, of which 
the following is a list of the most important: Rushville and Vienna, 
Rushville, Raysville and Knightstown, Rushville and INIilroy, Fal- 
mouth and Lewisville, Fayetteville and Andersonville, Fairview and 
Fayetteville, Fa5'etteville and Rushville, Hamilton Station, Rush- 
ville and Smeltzer's Mill, Rushville and Arlington, Lewisville and 
Raleigh, Charlotte\'ille, Rushville and Shelby ville, Rush and Henry, 
Moscow and Rushville, McDaniel and McBride, Carthage and 
Northwestern, Oldham and Sharon, Rushville and MuU, Shelby- 
ville and Mull, Arlington, Carthage and Knightstown, Hilligass, 
Miller, Rushville and Moscow, New Demreith, Simon Martin, Big 
Blue River, Carthage and Walnut Ridge, Ogdon, McMillin. 

With but a few exceptions these are toll roads, and were built 
long before the enactment of the law authorizing the construction 
of free gravel roads. In the last few years a number of free roads 
have been built and now the total miles of the toll and free roads 
is equal to the best counties in the state. 

Presidential Elections. — The following tables will show the re- 
sults of the presidential elections in Rush County, from 1824 to the 
present time. 


TOWNSHIPS. Adams and 


Rushville 13 



Richland 2 

Union o 

Total 15 

Day and 

Jackson and 

San ford. 












(^<^££^ j^ /i^, 




TOWNSHIPS. Jackson and 


Noble 52 

Washington 35 

Richland 58 

Orange S4 

Ripley 34 

Union 23 

Rushville 362 

Total 649 

Adams and 















Tackson and 

Clav and 

Van Buren. 














TOWNSHIPS. Harrison and 


Richland 94 

Noble 7:5 

Union ['^ 

Walker 10 

Anderson loS 

Washington 3y 

Posey 3S 

Center 42 

Orange iiy 

Ripley 108 

Rushville 524 

Total 1 167 


Van Buren and 
R. M. Johnson. 

















Richland . . . . 





Washington. . 







Harrison and 

Van Buren and 

























TOWNSHIPS. Clay and 


Rushville 414 

Noble , 1S4 

Riehland 149 

Anderson 124 

Union 107 

Ripley 146 

Center 96 

Washington 65 

Jackson 24 

Walker 56 

Orange 155 

Posey 59 

Total 15S0 


Jirney and 

Polk and 





















NOVEMBER, 1848. 

TOWNSHIPS. Taylor and 


Anderson 17S 

Center 99 

Jackson 50 

Noble 167 

Oi'ange 138 

Posey -■ 58 

Richland 156 

Ripley 102 

Rushville 236 

Union 125 

Walker 67 

Washington 66 

Total 1442 



Cass and 

Van Buren and 























Anderson . . . . 









Washington. . 




Scott and 






Pierce and 

Ilale and 





















TOWNSHIPS. Buchanan and 


Anderson 116 

Center 13S 

Jackson iii 

Orange 16S 

Noble 107 

Richland 73 

Rushville 320 

Ripley 95 

Union no 

Washington , 1 6S 

Walker 1 72 

Posey 107 

Total 16S5 

Fremont and 





Fihnore and 



Anderson .... 






Richland .... 


Rushville .... 



Washington 126 

Total II 19 





Douglas and 


Lincoln and 

Bell and 


and Lane. 















• 65 




































TOWNSHIPS. McClellan and Lincoln and 

Pendleton. Johnson. 

Anderson 90 236 

Center 172 145 

Jackson 90 83 

Noble 94 173 

Orange 147 155 

Posey 161 156 

Richland 89 149 

Ripley 49 23S 

Rushville 276 294 

Union 115 136 

Walker 171 64 

Washington 226 52 

Total 1680 iSSi 


TOWNSHIPS. Seymour and 


Anderson 112 

Center 157 

Soldiers' Home 7 

Jackson 99 

Noble 85 

Orange 169 

Posey 194 

Richland 98 

Ripley 71 

Rushville 352 

Union 167 

Walker 198 

Washington 224 

Total 1933 


Grant and 















TOWNSHIPS. Grant and 

Anderson 224 

Center 105 

Soldiers' Home 34 

Jackson 92 

Noble 172 

Orange 161 

Posey 199 

Richland 135 

Ripley 336 

Rushville 413 

Union 159 

Walker 72 

Washington 56 

Total 2li;8 

Greeley and 

O'Conner and 























NOVEMBER, 1876. 


TOWNSHIPS. Hayes and Tilden and 

Wheeler. Hendricks. 

Ripley 40S 95 

Posey 204 240 

Walker 98 218 

Orange 185 175 

Anderson 258 145 

Rushville 509 453 

Jackson ' 94 106 

Center 134 1S6 

Washington 64 222 

Union 190 163 

Noble 176 96 

Richland 148 104 

Total 2468 2202 

NOVEMBER, 1880. 


TOWNSHIPS. Garfield and Hancock and Weaver and 

Arthur. English. Chambers. 

Posey 218 251 3 

Walker 113 237 

Orange 186 178 2 

Anderson 272 148 3 

Richland 157 104 

Noble 195 99 

Union 195 172 3 

Washington 57 255 8 

Center 119 1S3 10 

Jackson 112 109 

Rushville 666 500 I 

Ripley _387 _88 22^ 

Total 2677 2326 52 



TOWNSHIPS. Blaine and Cleveland and Butler. 

Logan. Hendricks. 

Riolev 5 Precinct No. I. 166 42 9 

f. , ^ Precinct No. 2. 189 50 2 

Posey ^ £'■'=''!"'=! J't"- '■ ^'^ 94 

■' ; Frecmct No. 2. 120 131 2 

Walker....|P'''=""<=[^o. I. 54 ,27 

{ Precinct No. 2. 59 104 

Orange 172 164 I 

Anderson..^ ^■"^'=1"'=' No. I. 117 79 

\ Frecmct No. 2. 139 S3 I 

("Precinct No. I. 258 1:52 5 

Rushville..JP'''=""'='No-2- 312 20S 3 

I Precinct No. 3. 113 loS 

t Precinct No. 4. 115 86 

Jackson 106 112 i 

Center 129 1S3 

Washington 71 2S4 3 

Union <Glemvood 93 81 

\ L.ings 80 94 4 

Noble 186 102 

Richland 120 106 

Total 26S2 2334 "50 


Cooper and 


St. John. 


County Officers — Commissioners. — Amaziah Morgan, Jehu 
Perkins, John Julian, Daniel Stiers, Daniel Smith, Samuel Jackson, 
Samuel Culbertson, Peter Looney, John Walker, George Mull, 
John W. Barber, Martin Hood, O. H. Neff, T. M. Thompson, H. B. 
Hill, James R. Patton, John Carr, Richard J. Hubbard, Daniel 
AYilson, Joseph Peck, W. Markey, Elisha Prevo, John A. Boyd, 
William Roberts, David Sutton, John Blacklidge, Daniel Q. Spa'hn, 
I. W. Irvin, Joseph Amos, John Hinchman, Jabez Reeves, Perr}- 
Bovs, Joseph Florea, Hiram A. Fnbbv, James Innis, Joseph Over- 
man, James Hinchman, James A. Rankin, John T. Gregg, H. H. 
Elwelle, Eli Buell, A. Miller, Robert A. Hudleson, James B. Kirk- 
patrick, Robert H. Hinchman, John Terree, Andrew B. English, 
Henry Hungerford, AVilliam L. Walker, Benjamin L. McFarlan, 
Samuel R. Patton, William PI. Posey. 

Recorders. — William Junken, 1S22; Chas. H. Veeder, 1825; 
Job Pugh, 1829; Finley Bigger, 1847; Isaac Conde, 1850; A. 
Stone, 1859; Daniel Kinney, 1866; John H. Brown, 1874; J- H. Os- 
borne, 1S78; C. O. Nixon," 1886. 

Jreasurcrs. — James McManis, 1S22; Reu Pugh, 1829; Will- 
iam H. Martin, 1837; Samuel Davis, 1839; Thomas Wallace, 1S42; 
G. W. Brann, 1844; B. B. Talbott, 1S51; Reu Pugh, 1854: J. F. 
Smith, 1858; Jacob Beckner, 1S61; E. H. Berry, 1866; John B. 
Reeve, 1870; William Beale, 1872; Francis Gray, 1874; John 
Fleehart, 1S76; WiUiam Gordon, 1880; John C. Humes, 1882; 
Nathan Weeks, 18S6. 

Auditors. — Mathew Smith, 1841; Jesse D. Carmichael, 1846; 
A. Kennedy, 1S51; Alexander Posey, 1861; James M. Hildreth, 
1865; Benjamin F.Johnson, 1866; E. H. Wolfe, 186S; Alexander 
PoseA^ 1874; J- K. Gowdy, 1S82. 

Clerks. — Robert Thompson, 1822; J. L. Robinson, 1843; 
Pleasant A. Hackleman, 1848; George Hibben, 1856; John S. 
Campbell, i860; B. F. Tingley, 1864; James W. Brown, 1872; 
Jetson Smith, 1874; James W. Brown, 1S79: James M. Hil- 
dreth, 1884. 

Sheriffs.— ]ohn Hays, 1S22; N. W. Marks, 1823; Wilham 
Bussell, 1826; Alfred Pose}-, 1830; Greenberry Rush, 1S34; 
George W. Brann, 1836; Alvin N. Blackhdge, 1S38: Nehemiah 
Hayden, 1S42; Walter Brown, 1844; Harmon_y Laughhn, 1848; 
Nehemiah Hayden, 1850; James M. Caldwell, 1852; Harmon}- 
Laughlin, 1854; Samuel Caskey, 1856: Harmony Laughlin, 1858; 
Samuel S. McBride, 1864; Alex-ander McBride, iS66: t- H. Cook, 
186S; J. K. Gowdy, 1872; George W. Hall, 1874: Harrison S. 
Carney, i87'6; George W. Wilson, 1880; John W. Tompkins, 1884. 




Early Settlements ln Rush County — Squatters — First 
Permanent Settlers — Early Struggles for Land — 
Character of the Pioneers — Life in the Woods — 
Building the Cabin — Blue Grass — Work of the Men — 
Wild Game — Work of the Women — Amusements — 
Hunting — Trade — Agriculture — Land Entries — Early 
Lndustries — Old Settlers' Meetings — Rejiiniscences, Etc. 

i^^i^S] HE people of Rush County have a laudable and earn- 
^©<;^^Oi,^^est desire to learn all they can of the early settlement 
"" ' ^'Bim of their country. They want to know something of 
^those bold pioneers, who, leavmg all fear behind them, 
' pushed forward into the unbroken wilderness, leaving civ- 
■^^^^^ilization and all its comforts, to enjoy the wild, adventurous 
^ " " life of the frontiers. They braved the dangers of a prime- 
val forest, from savage beasts and venomous reptiles, and 
what was still more to be dreaded, the hatred of the early and re- 
vengeful Indian, who regarded the white man as a trespasser and 
an usurper of his rights. The natural terrors of the wilderness 
were but a part of the evils to be met. The deprivations, the 
hardships, the exposures, and the unceasing labor that had to be 
endured to open up a home and rear a family in the grand old for- 
ests, that once shaded ever}' acre of the fertile fields of Rush 
County, can not now be understood or reahzed. But these gallant 
spirits feared no dangers, they cheerfuU}' labored in unremitting 
toil to open up a farm, where their loved ones should in the dim fu- 
ture enjoy a home and all the happiness that this word implies. 
Actuated by such noble incentives to action these men were invinc- 
ible, they were the best and bravest men of their times ; no coward 
or sluggard sought the dangers and labors of the wilderness. They 
were the advance guard of civilization, the pioneers of progress. 
The present generation wishes to know something of the ever\--day 
life of these fathers, mothers and young people of the olden times ; 
something of their dwellings, their food, clothes, amusements, fur- 
niture and those things appertaining to the inner and social life. 
In these pages devoted to the early settlers, an attempt will be 
made to explain all these matters so that all can easil}- understand. 


It is scarcely necessary to premise these accounts by stating that 
Avhat is now Rush County was all a dense forest of gigantic pro- 
portions, no prairies, barrens or open woods; it was, indeed, in its 
truest significance a wilderness, grand in the wild luxuriance of a 
vegetation, the proof and product of the vast fertilit}' of the virgin 
soil. This rich soil, under the skillful labors of the agriculturist, 
has brought wealth and prosperity, of which everj^ citizen is justly 
proud. The children of these old pioneers are now enjoying the 
blessings accruing from their labors. Beautiful farms, splendid 
houses, with every tasteful adornment of fruits and flowers, culti- 
vated fields, meadows and pastures of blue grass that full}- equal 
the far-famed fields of Bourbon Count}', Ky., with live stock of all 
kinds, meets us on everj- side. The capacious school-house in 
every neighborhood attests the educational ti aining of our children, 
while the manj' handsome churches indicate the religious and moral 
character of the citizens. The change from the wild woods to the 
present state of high cultivation, civilization and refinement, has all 
been wrought in sixty-seven 3'ears or less, for the land office in 
Brookville was not opened for the sale of lands until the first Mon- 
day in October, 1820. Compare this country in 1820 with what it 
is to-day, and you can form some idea of the vastness of the change 
in the physical appearance of the country and its material wealth. 

The very first settlers were squatters. Some of these after the 
land office in Brookville was opened purchased their homes and 
went to work to open up a farm, but the majorit}' were hunters and 
trappers, whom a restless spirit of adventure ever kept on the fron- 
tiers; they were the avaiit courcnrs of the white race; always in ad- 
vance of emigration ; as soon as the men who sought a permanent 
home settled near them, they pushed farther into the wilderness, 
where the ringing blows of the axe had not driven away the game. 
This tj'pe of squatters were a peculiar people, brave, skilled in all 
the mysteries of woodcraft, wonderfull}^ self-reliant and cool, hos- 
pitable and generous, they were utterty uncultivated and rude ; they 
despised the learning of the schools, and the polish and refinement 
of society, deeming them frivolous and effeminate, unworthy the 
attention of the free rovers of the forest. 

JFirst Settlers. — The Indians having ceded their title to the land, 
in the earlj- part of 1S19, and the most of them having left this 
part of the countrv, the squatters soon found their way into the 
abandoned hunting grounds, some for the sake of the abundant 
game, others with an e^-e to a future home, to be secured when 
the land was thrown into the market. Of the latter class were 
several afterward well known in the earl}- history of our county. 
Henry Sidorus was a squatter on land now owned by T. P. AVhite, 


on the south side of Flat Rock ; it was where the Indian trail lead- 
ing from Connersville to the White River towns crossed that stream. 
He settled there in 1819; he was a keen hunter and skillful trapper. 
He built a house and stable, cleared some land, and had a wagon and 
horses. After the sale of the land he entertained land viewers and 
movers, assisting them with his team when needed. In 1821, he 
sold his claim to Joseph Smith for $100, with which he purchased 
eighty acres on the north side of Flat Rock, now a part of the 
farm of Mr. Jesse W. Smelser. After Indianapolis was laid out, 
he hauled the first dry goods from Cincinnati to that place, and 
also assisted in moving families and their household goods there. 
In 1823, he sold his land to John Smelser, for $300, and pushed 
out into what is now Champaign Count}^, Illinois, and located in a 
beautiful grove, which bears his name, as does the postoffice and 
railroad station, now there. His son William has his home there 
still. Richard Thornberry settled on Flat Rock, some four miles 
below Rushville, at the mouth of Hurricane Creek, in 1819. He 
entered his land on the 2nd of October, 1820. He remained an 
honored citizen of Rush, leaving many descendants. Isaac Will- 
iams squatted on the farm now owned by Andrew Guffin, a mile 
and a half north of New Salem, alsoiniSip; he entered his land in 
1820. Samuel Gruell squatted on what is now Arnold's Home 
farm, and his brother-in-law. Weir Cassady, on the Joseph Hinch- 
man farm. This was in 1819. Gruell sold his claim to John Ar- 
nold, for $50, in 1S20, and then bought eighty acres where 
Matthias Parson now lives; this he traded to John Parson for a 
farm on Nolan's Fork of Whitewater. Weir Cassady also 
bought land in Rush, and w^as a citizen until his death. He left 
numerous descendants. His widow died at the house of her son- 
in-law, John Oliver, in Rushville, within the last year. John Hale 
was a squatter on the land belonging to Thomas Cassad3\ He en- 
tered 160 acres of land and afterward sold it to Wilson Laugh- 
lln, which is now Judge W. A. Cullen's home farm. He was a 
famous hunter, and as a slayer of deer there was but one in the 
count}- that could compete with him, and that was Ben Burton, 
another squatter and afterward a permanent settler. 

Those early days were not without exciting episodes, indepen- 
dent of the adventures and dangers of the forest. John Hale had 
made considerable improvements on the land he designed entering, 
and was making ever}- effort to get together a sufficient sum to 
make the purchase. At this time, 1822, he ascertained that some 
parties from Kentucky had taken the numbers of the land, and had 
started to Brookville to make the entrj-. In this emergency he 
mounted his horse and galloped to Judge W. B. Laughlin to ask 


for aid in his dire distress. He stated the case to the judge and he 
immediately furnished him with the necessary cash. He then be- 
sought Harmony Laughlin to take his mone}' and his horse and en- 
deavor to oyertake and pass the other party, \yho had some hours 
the start, and get to the land office first and secure the land. 
Fortunately for the party so deeply interested in the race, his horse 
had both speed and endurance, and Hale had charged Harmony to 
beat them there if it killed his horse. Inspired by this order and 
his natural energy, he dashed away through the dim pathway, at 
furious speed. Night had overtaken the Kentuckians at Judge 
Mount's, at the point afterward known as INIetomora. Here they 
put up for the night, but Harmony made no halt but pushed on 
toward Brookville, where he arrived near morning, and as soon as 
it was light, hunted up the land office officials and made the entry, 
that secured to his friend Hale, the desired home. Shortly after 
the business was completed the Kentuckians arrived and to their 
intense chagrin, found that they were too late, that the othfer party 
had traveled while they slept. 

Character of the Pioneers. — After the first Monday in October 
of 1S20, when the land office was opened for the sale of the new 
purchase, the lands were rapidly taken up by settlers. As a 
general rule they were poor men, with onl}- money enough to buj' 
from 40 to 160 acres, and every man went to work to literally hew 
out a home in the wilderness. Thus the whole country was being 
simultaneousl}' improved. All recognizing their mutual dependence 
on each other, a spirit of kindness and helpfulness was engendered. 
One active factor in the development of the country was that every 
man, who sought to make a home in the forest, was a picked man, 
one who had volunteered to lead the forlorn labor of civilization 
against the rugged powers of nature. Thej- were brave, patient, 
persevering and hopeful, determined to succeed. No labors, hard- 
ships, or privations could daunt them. It was a most fortunate 
thing- for the welfare of our county, that there were no large 
bodies of unoccupied land, to defeat the neighborhood, for roads, 
schools and churches. There was but httle land held by non- 
resident speculators, who could patiently wait in their distant homes, 
for the actual settlers, bj' their labors to make their lands valuable. 
The early settlers while representatives of the several states from 
which they came, possessed marked individualitv. The conscious- 
ness of innate power made them self-reliant and each one worked 
and managed according to the dictates of his own judgment and 
conscience. The cool and calculating Yankee was found side by 
side with the generous and impulsive Kentuckian: the proud Vir- 
ginian beside the plodding Pensylvanian Dutchman; the quiet and 


peaceable Quaker, from the Carolinas, by the side of the wild and 
reckless Tennesseean, and here and there was a grave Englishman 
or warm hearted and quick tempered Irishman. From the gradual 
amalgamation, of these strong and varied elements, has resulted 
the present moral, intelligent and prosperous communit}-. 

The natural advantages of this country which had dra^vn to it 
so many from their distant homes, willing to endure everv hard- 
ship if it secured them a home, were a rich virgin soil, as fine and 
varied timber as can be found on earth, gushing springs and abun- 
dant streams, with a gently undulating surface pleasant and profit- 
able to cultivate. These men had an abiding faith in the future, 
and a love for this land of their hopes. The estimation they had 
of it, may perhaps be well shown, b}' the utterances of a preacher 
delivered in the woods more than fifty j'ears ago, near the Alger 
cemetery. The Rev. John Brown was an uneducated, but earnest 
and sometimes eloquent speaker. He was a New Light then, but 
afterward became a Christian preacher. His theme was the 
wonderful goodness, mere}" and beneficence of God, in endowing 
his thoughtless, thankless creatures with so many and such rich 
temporal blessings. That if we could only realize these things, 
that the coldest heart, the dullest intellect would be vivified by love 
and adoration of the great Giver. He then went on to say, that his 
audience had great and peculiar reasons for thankfulness. That 
their lots had been cast in pleasant plates, for that America was 
the most favored quarter of the globe ; that the United States was 
the best part of the continent; that Indiana was the best state in 
the Union; that Rush was the best county in the state, and finally 
that Ben Davis' Creek was the best part of the county; and then 
in most impassioned tones he exclaimed: "BeloA'ed brethren, Ben 
Davis' Creek is the heart of the world!" This sentiment was 
audiblv endorsed by Jacob Millburn, .to the evident satisfaction of 
the assembled worshipers. Jacob Millburn was a typical moun- 
taineer of western Virginia, one of the finest specimens of nature's 
noblemen, ph3-sically large and powerful, but by no means graceful 
in appearance or movement, unpolished in language and address, 
yet he was one of the gentlest and kindest persons that ever lived. 
No poor, distressed or unfortunate ever appealed to his sympathies 
in vain; to all such he cheerfully and ungrudgingly ministered with 
his time and mone}'. To his kindred and friends, his generosity 
was boundless and untiring. In all his dealings he was just and 
honorable. Although the owner of a first-rate quarter of land, 
and of indefatigable industry, vet possessing the traits of char- 
acter above mentioned, it is not surprising that he did not prove to 
be a successful money maker. But who can doubt, that when the 


dread hour of departure from this world came, the recollection of a 
life spent in the amenities of humanity, was far more soothing to 
his soul than would have been the possession of untold millions. 

Life ill the Woods. — When a pioneer was selecting land for his 
future home, of course he wanted good soil, good timber, good 
water, including springs for the use of the famil}', and if possible 
other springs or running streams for stock. He always built his 
cabin near a spring, for the digging of wells was a dernier ressort 
The tirst thing to be done after selecting the site was to cut down 
and clear away the timber; then the building of the cabin was the 
next and most important undertaking. The usual size was about 
sixteen by twenty feet, varying according to the size of the family 
to be sheltered. It was built of round logs securely notched at 
the corners. The roof was composed of clap boards, four feet 
long, and about ten inches wide, and half an inch thick; these were 
generally of oak. They rested on round logs, some three feet apart, 
and were kept in place by similar ones, the weight poles laid on 
top of them, which were kept in place b}' supports extending from 
one to the other at each end. For the fire place, an opening of 
eight or ten feet was cut out of one end of the cabin and 
the chimney was built some five feet high of heavy, split slabs 
at each end of the opening, notched into the building, and 
then notched into other slabs for the back, forming, an enclos- 
ure, say eight by five feet. Then the next thing was to 
thoroughly work clay so as to form a tough mortar. With 
this the jambs and back of the fire place were made, by piling it up 
about eighteen inches thick, and with heavy maul packing it solid. 
Then above this, came the graceful stick chimne}', large at the bot- 
tom and then gradually drawing in for five or six feet, then built 
straight up, and extending above the roof. The sticks were split 
square, so as to fit accuratel}-, and as fast as it was built, was thor- 
oughly and smoothly plastered inside and out, making a chimney 
safe and durable. The floor of the cabin was made of puncheons, 
that is split timber, some four inches thick, the edges and upper 
surface were made smooth and straight with the axe. The joists 
on which they rested were round logs, with the upper surface 
hewed, a very solid and substantial floor, but not quite so tight 
as could be desired. The doors were made of thinner split boards, 
fastened by wooden pins to cross pieces, one end of which, project- 
ing somewhat, had a hole to receive a pin fastened to the wall. 
This constituted the hinges. Generally on the side opposite the 
door, was the window, made by cutting out three or four feet of a 
log; in winter this was closed by paper made translucent by being 
oiled. In summer it was always open. The openings between 


the logs -were effectually closed by being chinked and daubed, that 
is split pieces of timber were accurately fitted and driven in the 
chinks and then they were plastered inside and out with clay, clos- 
ing the openings, and making a warm and comfortable room even 
in the coldest weather, when the vast fire-place filled with its 
mighty back-log, fore-stick and smaller sticks, sent a torrent of 
flame up the chimney. The joists above were covered with clap 
boards making a low ceiling. The axe, the saw and different sized 
augurs were the only tools necessary for the construction of this 
primitive dwelling. No nails, glass, brick or sawed plank entered 
into it. The furniture was generally made with the tools above 
mentioned, and was rough and unpolished, but verj' substantial. The 
cradle, was an indespensable article in those times, for women then 
had, as a rule, large families and they were happy in them. This 
is very unlike their descendants of the present day, who though 
willing enough to enter into the married state, are loath to per- 
form the duties and assume the responsibilities of that divinel}' or- 
dained institution. Some indespensable articles were not of 
domestic manufacture. These were the large wheel for spinning 
wool and the small wheel for flax, and also the reel. These were 
supplied by the wheel-wrights, who floated on the wave of emigra- 
tion, ready to supply b}' their skill the wants of the settlers. 

The above description applies to the average homes of the pio- 
neers. Of course there were some, who having more abundant 
means built larger and better houses and had some furniture 
brought with great labor from their old homes. The rifle hung 
on every wall, for it supplied the meat for their tables. The fat 
bear meat and the juicy venison, the delicious turkej' and the deli- 
cate pheasant made glad the hearts or the hungry children. The 
ring of the axe woke the echoes of the forest and ever and anon 
came the thunderous crash, as some mighty monarch of the grove 
fell beneath the woodsman's blows. The prostrate trunk was trim- 
med of its brush and smaller limbs, which were piled and burnt, 
and the trunk cut into convenient lengths, which with acres of 
others, formed the material for a future log-rolling. When ready, 
the neighbors were invited and came from far and near and as- 
sisted in piling them in vast heaps, and when they were burned il- 
luminating the nocturnal heavens by their fierce light. No man 
refused to assist his neighbor, or kept account of the days spent in 
log-rolling or house raising. Some times in the spring they would 
spend from twelve to twent}' da\'s in this kind of work. After this 
came the planting of their corn and other crops, which had to be done 
mainl}' with the hoe, as much of the ground could not be broken 
b}' the plough on account of the tough green roots. 


It may be asked how did the horse and cow subsist, without pas- 
ture for summer or meadow to furnish hay for winter. Then, in 
the shade of the woods, was found wild grasses, vines and other 
forage plants which have long since utterly disappeared, trod out 
by the foot of civilization. The horse and the cow with each a 
large bell attatched to their necks, wandered at will, the sonorous 
tinkle of the bell guiding their owners to them when they wished 
to bring them home. In the evening the hardy boy took his fath- 
er's gun, to drive up the cow, hoping perchance to find some game, 
that would be an acceptable addition to their larder. '_ The cow 
fodder was all saved for winter, but the first year or two they had 
to depend principall}' on the browse of the elm, maple, beech and 
other fine twigged trees, which were daily felled for their use. 
This with a little corn, kept them fairl}^ well, until the warm show- 
ers and genial breezes of spring awakened vegetation from its 
long sleep. 

Blue Grass. — Another factor in suppl\"ing the food for stock, 
was the fact verified by the observation of all early settlers, that 
the blue grass was indigenous to this country, that it sprung up 
spontaneously wherever the land was cleared and left unbroken by 
the plough. So that in a few years this most nutritious of all 
grasses, was found in the fence corners and the cleared or par- 
tially cleared lands, around every cabin. Now it is found every- 
where, when the land is cleared and unbroken, even though no 
seed has been sown by the hand of man. Along the road sides, 
the open woods and the permanent pastures it is found growing 
luxuriantl}'. K field sown in clover and timothy at the end of five 
years will be found to be a blue grass sod. It is permanent, never 
dies out or wears out, there are pastures on Arnold's Flome farm 
that have been used for over fifty years, that now cannot be ex- 
celled by any in the county. Most other vegetable products after 
a longer or a shorter time, seem to exhaust the elements of the 
soil, necessary for their production, and fail, but the rich tenacious 
blue grass is perennial. 

Work of the JIcii. — This has been prettv fullv described in 
part relating to the building of the cabin and the clearing of the 
land, but a few words describing the different modes of clearing 
will not perhaps be amiss. One method was to clear it " smack 
smooth, " that is cutting down and burning up all the trees, grub- 
bing all the underbrush and making the land ready tor the plough. 
This implies a tremendous amount of hard work. Yet there were 
not a few who by this mode of clearing earned enough money to 
buy themselves homes. Jonathan Bishop, in 1S22, cleared ten acres 
for Isaac Arnold, on the farm now belonging to J. R. Kirkwood. 


for which he received $io an acre. He built a cabin on the land 
to be cleared and moved his family into it, where the}' lived 
and toiled, until the contract was completed, when he received his 
hundred dollars; he entered the eighty acres now belonging to 
Marshall Blackhdge ; the land cleared and the land bought were 
both in Union Township. This is only one instance among man's', 
that might be mentioned, but it is sufficient to illustrate the indom- 
itable industry and perseverance of the men of those times. An- 
other and the most usual method was to clear eighteen inches and 
under. In these later days it may be necessary to explain the 
meaning of this term. It implied that all trees eighteen inches in 
circumference and less, two feet from the ground, were to be re- 
moved, the brush to be grubbed out, all logs to be burned, and all 
the trees left, were to be deadened. After the first year good crops 
were raised in these clearings. But the easiest way was to deaden 
forty or fifty acres and at the end of five years, grub the matted 
and luxuriant underbrush, and in the dry autumn months go in with 
fire and axe, chopping down some, and firing all down or standing 
and in a short time the dry and dead timber was consumed and the 
land read}' for fencing and cultivation. This land was always more 
productive, than that cleared all off in the green. The reason for 
this was that the small limbs falling to the ground and having rot- 
ted formed an abundant and rich humus, which ensured abundant 
crops, when cultivated. The cultivation of the land was light in 
comparison with the hard labor of chopping, of house raising and 
log rolling, which had preceded it. In the first settling, hunting 
was a necessary avocation, for it provided food for the family. It 
was not for mere amusement as it is now. 

Wild Game. — Wild turkey and deer were the game usually 
sought for. The usual mode of hunting the deer was h\ day, the 
hunter gliding through the forest noiselessly, so as not to alarm 
them, and when one was sighted the trusty rifle did its work effect- 
ually. Another and an easier mode was to watch the licks at 
night. The licks were saline springs, where the deer and other 
graminivorous animals came to satisfy their desire for the saline. 
The hunter generally climbed a tree and then waited and watched 
until the unsuspecting creature, while slaking its thirst afforded a 
fair mark for the deadly rifle. Some of these licks were famous 
in early times and had their distinctive names. In the valley of 
Mahoning or Ben Davis' Creek there are several. The most 
widely known was perhaps the "Three Suck Lick" on the farm 
now owned by Dr. J. Arnold. It received its name from the fact 
of its having three of these saline springs, where the deer came to 
suck its waters. Now it is merely an unnoticed swamp or morass 


fifty or sixty j^ards in length and twenty or twent3--five in breadth. 
Perhaps 100 deer were slain at this lick. It was known and 
utilized by the Indians, long before the foot of the white man had 
ever pressed its brink. 

Work of the Women. — The labor of the men was hard enough, 
but that of the women was incessant and multifarious. All the 
cooking was done in the open fire-place, in pots, skillets and bake- 
ovens. They were necessarily exposed to the direct heat of the 
blazing winter fires. The cooking stove, with all its convenient 
appliances, had not then been dreamed of. They not only made 
up all the clothing necessary for a large family, bj' hand, for sew- 
ing machines had not then been invented, but they also spun the 
tow, flax and wool, which they afterward wove into cloth suitable 
for the garments. 

The big and the little spinning wheels were found in everj- home 
and were in constant use. On the small wheel was spun the tow 
and flax thread, from which sheets, towels, tablecloths, shirts, pants 
and numerous other garments were inanufactured. On the large 
wheel the wool was spun to be used in the making of blankets, 
flannels, jeans, linseys, stockings, etc. Prior to the erection of 
carding mills in the country, the wool, after picking and was)iing, 
was carded into rolls, by the same untiring hands that afterward 
spun it into yarn, wove it into cloth and shaped it into garments. 
There was much music in the large wheel in the hands of a skillful 
spinner. The loud, rapid and increasing buzz, until it reached its 
highest velocity, and then its gradual subsidence as the momentum 
given to it was lost, and this again and again repeated, in rapid suc- 
cession, produced notes r3'thmical and realty musical. And it can 
be asserted in all sincerity and truth, that there is no employment 
or amusement, in which the graces of form and movement of a 
beautiful woman can be displa^-ed to greater advantage. See \\-ith 
what a firm, quick step she advances, in an instant winds up the 
thread of several yards, just spun; affixing another roll, and with 
the right hand gives the wheel a rapid rotary motion, and with ex- 
tended left arm draws out the thread, as she quickly glides back- 
ward across the room. 

Soothed by the music, 3'ou could enjo}- the graceful and rythmical 
movements of this now obsolete emploj'ment. It was nevertheless 
hard work and few could spin their dozen cuts (a daj-'s work) 
without absolute fatigue. The women of the present generation, 
when they with retrospective glance, view the multiform labors of 
their mothers, and compare them with their own, must feel grate- 
ful that they were not bom in the early years of this century. Now 
abundant means supply their wants: handsome, convenient well 

.M>^ ^ cJ^'^/Ml//. 



furnished houses are their homes, provided with all the appliances 
of taste and literary culture, and where the cooking stove has 
superseded the huge fire-place, the sewing machine hand sewing, 
and the music of the organ or piano has taken the place of that of 
the spinning wheel. In short they live in the enjoyment of all the 
benefits of all the wonderful discoveries and improvements, that 
have characterized this nineteenth centur}', tending to lessen labor 
and promote comfort. 

Aiiiiiseiiiciifs. — The earl}- settlers were not without their amuse- 
ments, but some of these would now be considered work instead 
of recreation. The corn husking might be classed under this head. 
A farmer would pull his corn and throw it under sheds, near the 
cribs. Then when everything was ready invitations would be given 
to the young men of the neighborhood to come some night to the 
corn husking. The young lassies were also invited to assist in 
cooking and bv their presence and their smiles to encourage the 
young men in the labors of the evening. They generally chose a 
moonlight night, but if this was not the case, the glare of torches 
lit up the scene. The flashing light of the torches added much to 
the wild and picturesque interest of the occasion. 

The first thing to be done was to choose two captains to lead 
the rival bands of workers. They were selected with reference to 
their known skill and prowess in this business. Then these two 
chose alternately from those present until a division was made. 
Then the corn pile was divided as evenly as possible. This was 
fairly done, for the one who made the division, had to let his oppon- 
ent have the choice. Then each party sprung to their work, striv- 
ing to complete their task the first, and be the victors in the excit- 
ing and friendlv contest. The captains strove by their example and 
b}- every means in their power to stir their side to redoubled exer- 
tion. The merry tale, the jokes, laughter and roaring fun; ruled 
the hour. The voung men stimulated bv the presence of the rlady 
loves and encouraged by their kind words, felt no fatigue, needed 
no rest, until their task was done. The young women moved 
about among the buskers to encourage them and often had to pay 
the penalty of their friendlv mterest in the contest, for it was the 
law, that the young' man who found a red ear was entitled to a kiss 
of the lass he loved the best, if he could get it, and here came in 
the fun, for frequently the woman did not riciprocate the feeling 
of her ardent admirer, and would refuse to pay the penalty, run- 
ning awa}' and if caught, resisting vigorously. This was exciting 
fun and made the hours pass swiftly bv, and presentlv one of the 
great piles of corn was husked and the triumphant shouts of victory 
rang the midnight air, and all joined in finishing the remainder. Then 


came the old fashioned hearty supper, which was keenl}- enjo3'ed 
by all, with appetites sharpened by labor. After supper there was 
generally some rural plays indulged in b}- the young folks. And finally 
in the wee sma' hours they scattered to their severalhomes, the gal- 
lant youth and tender maiden as happy and contented as the par- 
ticipants in the grand and fashionable balls of our great cities. And 
why should they not be? for while human nature is the same in 
everjr clime and condition, the hearts of the young are alike sus- 
ceptible to the tender passion and capable of realizing all the ex- 
quisite pleasures of love's young dream. 

Another amusement of the J'oung was the chopping and quilt- 
ing frolic. Some settler, anxious to get some ground cleaned, and 
also to afford an opportunity for enjoyment to his friends, would 
give an invitation to the young men to come with their axes and 
spend the day in felling the trees of the forest, while his good wife 
would invite the young women to come and with their nimble fin- 
gers and sharp needles to assist her in completing the ornate and 
beautiful work of the quilt. The music of the axe swung by stal- 
wart arms, accompanied by the frequent crash of falling timber, 
continued through the da}', and in the evening, the quilt being fin- 
ished was taken out of the way, and the play and the dance took 
place, which amph' repaid the labors of the day. 

The Singing School was another institution of earlv times. The 
teachers were generallv itinerants, who traveled through the coun- 
try organizing schools in every neighborhood, which they visited at 
stated times, and strove to train the voices to melodious sounds. 
These primitive singing schools were the cause of as much enjoy- 
ment as are the concert or the opera of the present day. The most 
popular and able teacher of olden times in this country was a col- 
ored man, known far and near as " Old Gabe." What his name was 
besides Gabriel is not now remembered. He was tall, gaunt and 
ungainly in appearance, but was skilled in his business and was 
liked as a teacher. His home was on the White Water. 

Shooting matches were alike popular with the old and the 
j-oung. All were familiar with the use of the rifle and prided them- 
selves on their skill. The matches were made by a number of 
persons uniting to buv a fat steer or heifer for beef. The animal 
was then divided into five shares, the four quarters and the hide 
and tallow. The best shot had the first choice, the next the second 
choice, until it was all taken up. At other times there would be 
but one prize, perhaps a rifle, or an axe, or a cow or a calf would 
be shot for. These contests were alwaj^s interesting, not only on 
account of the value of the prize, but also the glorv of the victor}'. 
Shooting at a mark even when there was nothing to be won, was a 



constant source of amusement, and was greatly appreciated by the 
frontiersman, and indulged in on all public gatherings, such as mus- 
ters, elections, etc. The skill of many with the rifle was indeed 
wonderful. Snuffing the candle with their ball was a feat that re- 
quired the greatest tact and coolness. After night a candle was' 
lighted and placed against a tree, say forty or fifty yards distant, 
and then the object was to cut the lighted wick off, without strik- 
ing the candle itself. Edward Swanson, afterward famous as the 
murderer of Elisha Clark, and as being the onh' man in this countjr 
who has ever expiated his crime on the gallows, was the champion 
in this feat. His skill with the rifle was something wonderful, his 
sagacity as a hunter and woodsman could not be excelled. He was 
a typical frontiersman and Indian fighter, cool, crafty and courageous. 
The migration of squirrels, which was of frequent occurrence 
in the early settlement of this countr}-, was a great injury and 
annoyance to the settler who had his little corn field, of two to five 
acres, almost ready to be gathered. The invasion of the countless 
hosts of squirrels was in the autumn, and the course southward. 
No obstacles arrested their march or could stay their progress; 
they swam rivers, even the Ohio. They destroyed all the mast, 
and would have consumed all the grain in their course, had not the 
settlers at once organized for the defense of their fields. A call for 
a meeting was given, which was promptly responded to by all, for 
ah were alike interested. Here the extent of the territory to be 
hunted over was defined; by subscription, prizes were raised, to be 
awarded to the two or three having killed the largest number; 
judges were selected to count the scalps — the scalp was the skin 
from across the head with the ears attached; these were strung on 
a strong linen thread with a needle at one end. After the settling 
of these preliminaries, every man hastened home to prepare for the 
grand hunt of the next da}'. Bullets were cast, patches cut, wipers 
prepared, flints picked, and everthing necessary for success made 
ready. Bright and early on the eventful da}- each man, with his 
driver, generally a bov, entered the forest. Soon the sharp, almost 
incessant, crack of the rifle, on every side, told that the slaughter 
had begun. This went on without intermission until evening, for 
every man carried his lunch of corn bread and dried venison or 
something else in his pocket, so that no time should be lost. At 
the time and place agreed on, they met with their scalps, the 
trophies of their skill, to be counted and the work of the day 
summed up. Some would bring their hundred scalps, so that the 
aggregate of the hunt would run into the thousands. This re- 
lieved that neighborhood of its pests. Among all these multitudes 
not a fox squirrel was found. They were the gra}', with a few 


black among them ; they were the aborigines of this country. The 
fox squirrel came in later. No one ever saw a fox squirrel in this 
count}- until after 1842; now they have almost entirely superseded 
their gray congeners. 

Hunting and Trapping. — Many of the early settlers, not only 
the squatters, but many of those who bought land were, by choice, 
hunters and trappers and enjoved the free life of the wilderness, 
and had but little liking for the stead\' labor of opening a farm and 
cultivating the crops. These kept their tables well supplied with 
venison, wild turkej', pheasant, quail, squirrel and other game. The 
deer skins were tanned and made into hunting shirts and pantaloons, 
which were more durable than anvthing now to be found in the 
shops of our merchant tailors. They would often sell their game 
to their neighbors or exchange it with them for com or other neces- 
saries or commodities which their families required. In the winter 
they spent most of their time trapping fur bearing animals, such as 
the beaver, the otter, the mink, the muskrat, the raccoon, etc. The 
skins of the first three, even in those daj-s, brought good prices and 
enabled these men to provide for their families as well as man)- of 
their neighbors, who spent their time in clearing land and in agri- 
cultural pursuits. But when the opening of the countrj-had driven 
the game away, the}- became discontented as their favorite avoca- 
tion was gone, sold their possessions and went westward toward the 
setting sun. But nearly all the early settlers were lovers of the 
chase and enjoyed its pleasures as often as they could do so, with- 
out neglecting their regular business. 

Dress. — When it is remembered that nearly every article worn 
by man or woman was of home manufacture, the product of toil- 
some labor, it will not be surprising that utility and not fashion 
guided the hand that made the garment. The mother who broke 
and hackled the flax, spun and dyed the thread, wove the cloth, 
cut and sewed the garment, did not put in more material than was 
reallv necessary in her daughter's dress. The same thing would 
control the shaping of the winter garments ; the hand that carded 
the wool, spun and dyed the thread and wove the cloth could not 
afford to sacrifice to fashion. All the materials for their clothing 
were intended for service and comfort. The pride of dress was 
then unknown, it was only on Sunday that the woman or man wore 
their " store clothes," that is, she wore a calico dress, and he a 
cloth coat and pants. The buckskin breeches and the hunting 

shirt, a loose blouse worn with a belt, were well adapted for getting 
through the woods, as they would not tear, even if caught on broken 
hmbs or brush. 

The manners of the backwoodsmen were frank and kind. With- 


out the polish given by literary culture and intercourse with the po- 
lite and refined, they possessed a hearty sincerity and evident 
kindness that made a favorable impression on the stranger as well 
as on their immediate neighbors. True politeness is the expression 
of that respect for the feelings, rights and wishes of others, which 
we ourselves desire and expect from them. It is not a mere pol- 
ished verbiage that signifies nothing. It is only the carrying out of 
the divine precept to do unto others as you would have others do 
unto you. When tested by this standard, the pioneers were a po- 
lite people. There was one most pleasant feature of social inter- 
course in those days, and that was the universal respect shown to 
the aged. The hoary head of the grandsire was everywhere wel- 
comed with kindl)' attention and reverence. This was a most pleas- 
ing trait of character, and reflected honor on those practicing it. 
Truth compels the statement that there has been a great decadence 
in this particular in this countr}- since those early days. 

Hospitality. — This was one of the common virtues of those times, 
indeed, it was universal. The helpful, fraternal spirit, that prompted 
a man to help his neighbors, from twelve to twenty days ever}' season, 
in house raising and log rollings, caused him to welcome the stranger 
and the newcomer to the comforts of his home, looking for no 
compensation beyond the consciousness of having done a humane 
and Christian act. They felt that they were simply doing their duty 
and they would not be satisfied to do less. Besides this innate princi- 
ple of action, they all felt that they were dependent on the help of 
others in many things, and consequently cheerfully gave needed 
assistance to their neighbors so as to merit and receive the same in 
return. When a man had made a successful hunt he divided his 
game with his neighbors, or if there was some poor, unfortunate or 
sick man, he was kindly and bountifully remembered. 

Trade. — In the early days, before the farms were cleared up 
enough to produce a surplus, money was extremely scarce, and 
the business of the country was done by traffic or trade. For in- 
stance, a man wanted some clearing done and offered a cow and 
calf, a sow and pigs, or a horse, as the price for a certain number 
of acres. This would suit some stalwart neighbor, who had more 
energy and industiy than pecuniary resources. The work was 
done and both parties were satisfied with the trade. A hunter 
had some fine dressed buckskins, which some one else wanted to 
make clothes for his boys, and gave him a certain number of days' 
work for them. One had twenty-five or fifty bushels of grain to 
sell, another made so many pannels of fence for it. A man took 
his dried venison hams, his otter or coon skins to the store-keeper 
and traded them for goods indispensable in his famih*. Thus 


much of the business of the country was transacted without money. 
As the farms became cleared up there was a surplus produced be- 
yond the wants of the neighborhood. For this there was no mar- 
ket nearer than Cincinnati. The man who had thirty or fortj- 
bushels of wheat to sell loaded it in his wagon and started for mar- 
ket, traveling by routes, by courtes}' called roads, he took his pro- 
visions and horse feed with him, and when night overtook him, 
camped for the night near some spring or creek, fed his horses, 
cooked his supper and slept in his wagon, which had a cover. In 
this way he proceeded for three or four days, when he would reach 
the city. Here he disposed of his load at the great tall five-storied 
stone mill, on the Ohio River bank, near the foot of Sycamore 
Street, for from 40 to 50 cents per bushel. With his hard-earned 
money he bought his salt, iron, groceries and drj^ goods. If he 
had hogs, he united with several of his neighbors, to take their 
stock to market. To drive fifty or one hundred wild elm peelers 
seventy or eighty miles, through an unfenced country was a heav}^ 
contract, for it imphed the necessity of frequent races, after those 
that would make a break for libertjr or home, the tramping through 
deep mud, wading of rivers and exposure to inclement weather. 
But there were always plenty of boys and young men readv and 
willing to go for their board and small wages, for their curiosity 
had been excited and their imaginations fired b}' the reports of the 
wonders, the pleasures and the wealth of the cit}'. The hogs were 
sold for from $1 to $1.50 net weight. It was considered a 
good lot that averaged 125 pounds. Corn was worth from 
10 to 15 cents per bushel. With these modes of marketing and 
these prices, it is readily understood that economy was a necessary 

Agriculture. — This was rude and difficult; after the land was 
cleared, the number of stumps and the multitudinous green tough 
roots rendered the work of the plough difficult and imperfect, and 
it \^'as necessary to supplement it largely with the hoe. But in 
spite of these disadvantages, everything planted grew luxuriantly, 
stimulated by the wonderful fertility of the soil. Their farm- 
ing implements were of the most primitive description. The old 
"Bull Tongue " plough would now bean object of curiositj' and 
ridicule. The wheat was sown broadcast and harrowed in bj- a 
rude harrow or by heavy brush dragged over the ground; when 
ripe, it was cut with the sickle or reaping-hook. This was a slow 
process, the reaper grasped a handful of the grain, and by a quick 
dra\^'ing motion it was cut off and laid on the ground and other 
handfuls added until there was enough for a sheaf, when it was 
bound. After many years, the cradle was introduced, which was a 

EARLY settle:\iexts. 337 

great improvement on the sickle. The cradle had a handle and 
scythe blade, like an ordinary mowing scj'the, but it had also an 
upright perpendicular to the blade of the sc3'the, and into this were 
fastened curved pieces of hickory called fingers; the use of these 
was to catch the grain cut by the blade and enable the cradler to 
throw the grain in a heap ready to be bound. Everj- swing of the 
cradle cut a space some six feet long and two to three feet wide. A 
good cradler would cut down four to five acres a day, but it was 
extremely hard w^ork to swing this instrument from early morn to 
dewy eve. The thrashing was done by the flail or was tramped 
out on a barn floor by horses ridden and led around by boys, some 
one with a fork continually throwing the sheaves in their place, to 
be tramped. This was much more expeditious than the flail. 
When the grain was thrashed, next came the cleaning or winnow- 
ing of the grain. The primitive mode was for two stout men to 
take firm hold on either end of a sheet, and w-hile a third poured 
slowly from a half bushel or something of the kind, by a quick 
violent shake to create such a strong current of air that it swept 
away the chaff while the grain fell to the ground ready for the mill. 
This was hard and slow work. What a change fift}' years has 
wrought. Now with improved ploughs, rollers and harrows, the 
ground is prepared, and with a two horse drill the seed is evenly 
distributed and covered so as to ensure the germination of every 
grain. When harvest time comes, the farmer hitches his horses to 
the self-binder, drives into the field and cuts and binds from ten to 
fifteen acres a day, with no more labor than it requires to guide 
the horses, as he rides on the machine. Now when the grain is 
ready, the steam thrashing machine comes into the field and 
thrashes and completely cleans from 800 to 1,000 bushels in a day. 
What a triumph of skill and ingenuity! What a saving of human 
labor ! 

Land Entries. — No land was or could be entered, before the 
first Monday in October, 1820, when the land office at Brookville, 
was opened for the sale of the lands of the new purchase, as all 
that territory was designated, lying west of the boundary line of 
the twelve mile purchase, said line being about four miles west of . 
Connersville. In the three months of 1820, there were 16S per- 
sons made entries of land in what was afterward Rush County, 
some of onh' forty acres and others of varj'ing amounts, from 
eighty to 640, but there were more of eighty and 160 acres than any 
other amounts. In 1821, there were 278 persons made entries. In 
the succeeding four or five years the land was taken up still more 
rapidly. In the beginning there were several nuclei of settlements. 
Men found it to their advantage to settle near others for mutual 


assistance. Thus there were a number settled in what is now 
Noble Township, Jehu Perkins, Isaac Williams, Conrad Sailors, 
Isaac Stevens, Jacob Starr, John Pogue, James Logan, Aaron 
Lyons, John Laforge, John Beaver, Peter Loonev, Henry INIvers, 
Lewis Smith, Jacob Sailors, George Taylor, Aaron Wellman, 
Solomon Bowen, Elias Poston, Robert Stewart, James Wiley, 
John Gregg, John P. Thomson, Abraham Hackleman and 
his two sons, Elijah and Abner, Thomas and Stephen Lewis, and 
many others of note in earljf times, and who are represented by 
their descendants. In what is now Union Township, Ben Davis' 
Creek, or as it was called by the Delaware Indians, Mahoning 
Creek, seemed to be the center of attraction. Among the very 
earliest were John Arnold, John Houghton, Rans Bvrd Green, 
Thomas Sargeant, John Horlock, Amaziah Morgan, George and 
Michael Hittle, Samuel Danner, Samuel Newhouse, John Nash, 
John and Richard Blacklidge, George Nipp, Isaac Arnold, John 
McMillen, Wills Buzan, Jacob Virgil, Elisha Clark, Peter Shafer, 
Edward Swanson, George and Matthew Zion, John Clifford, Sam- 
uel Durbon, John Morris, Obadiah Se\\ard, Philip and Richard 
Richee, Isaac Sparks, David Looney, Samuel Bussell, Lawrence 
Aspy, Conrad flilligos, James and John Hinchman, John Brown, 
Thomas, Henr}^ and James Logan, John Garrison, Isaac and 
Abraham Fleener, David Low, Hiram Kindall and Robert Groves. 

In what is now Richland Township, a nucleus of settlement was 
formed in 1S20 by George Brown, Jesse Morgan, James Hender- 
son, John Ray, John Enrick, Joel Craig and James and John Gregg. 
In what is now Riple\' Township the settlement was begun in 1821, 
by Thomas, Nathan and Jonathan Hill, Dayton Holloway, Nathan 
White, Benjamin Snyder, Andrew Thorp and Benjamin Cox. 

The settlement of Rushville Township began very early; Richard 
Thornberr}^ was a settler before the sale of the lands, buying the 
pieces on which he had squatted. In 1S20, Judge W. B. Laughlin, 
Stephen Simms, Christian Clymer, Houston Morris, Lot Green, 
Daniel Smith, David Morris, Elijah Lewark, Wesle}^ Moffett, 
George Mull, John Parson, Cuthbert Webb, Andrew Gilson, Sam- 
uel Jackson, John Hale, Sampson Thomas, Simeon Cassad}', 
James McManus, Presby Moore, John Phillips, Thomas McCarty, 
John Oliver and many others located here. These were the princi- 
pal points of the very early settlers, but the other parts of the county 
were rapidly filled up in the next three or four years. 

Earl\ Industries. — Judge W. B. Laughlin built the first grist 
mill in the county, in 1S21. It was south of where the town of 
Rushville stands, on the land now owned by Aaron Frazee, the dam 
was where the south bridge now crosses Flat Rock. This was a 


great convenience to the pioneers of this county as they had to go 
heretofore to Connersville to do their milhng. But some two years 
later a season of unprecedented amount and fatality of, sickness 
devastated the young town of Rushville. The citizens excited and 
alarmed attributed this to the damming of Flat Rock, and consider- 
ing it their right and duty to abate the fatal nuisance, rose cii masse 
and destroyed the dam. But this did not materially lessen the ma- 
larious elements generated by the exposure of a damp soil teeming 
with decaying vegetable matter to the direct rays of the sun. At 
this time Jehu Perkins had a distillery on his farm and a horse 
power tread mill for the grinding of corn. Some years later he 
built a mill on Little Flat Rock, near where the Pleasant Run Bap- 
tist Church now^ stands. William Robinson built a steam mill on 
the farm now owned by Abijah Hunt; these were in what is now 
Noble Township. At an earl}- day John Woods put up a mill at Mos- 
cow, built of round logs, he also had a still-house there, as had 
Joseph Owens. These with their old fashioned copper stills amply 
supplied the spirituous wants of this, then notorious, town and its 
vicinitv. Robert Hill built a saw mill in 1827, and one year later 
a grist mill, at the place now known as Carthage. Dayton Hollo- 
way built the next mill in that neighborhood. 

In Union Township John Smelser built the first grist mill in 
1822 or '23, on Flat Rock, which was for ver^-man}' years the best 
and most popular mill in the count)-. A few years later he erected 
a large distillery at the same point, and also a saw mill. But Peter 
Shafer erected the first saw mill in this township, on Ben Davis' or 
Mahoning Creek, on land now belonging to George Gray, south of 
J. W. Looney's farm. Some ^-ears later Jonathan Bishop built a 
saw mill on the land now owned by Marshall Blacklidge, and a Mr. 
Lewis put up a grist and saw mill on land now owned bv Mrs. Emily 
Coleman, and Reuben Roland put up a grist mill on the farm be- 
longing to the Hon. A. RL Kennedy. These were all on the same 

George Nipp erected a saw mill on Flat Rock at an early day 
on land now the property of Purnell Bishop. Some years later 
Adam i\mmon put up a grist and saw mill, which is now known as 
Nipp's mill. A Mr. Carr had a mill also on Flat Rock a mile 
above Raleigh. In Posey Township" Jacob Reed built the first 
mill, and soon after Jonathan Ball built a grist and saw mill. These 
were the mills that were sufficient to supph- the wants of the early 
settlers, but as the country became cleared up and its resources de- 
veloped there was a demand for larger and better mills and factories 
of various kinds, wl«ch have now been abundantly supplied. 


Old Settlers Meetings. — As years rolled on, and one aftej 
another of the gray haired pioneers, the fathers and the mothers of 
the present prosperous people, went to their rest, and their voices, 
that had so often thrilled our hearts with their stirring narratives of 
early times, became hushed forever, an earnest desire and determina- 
tion arose to perpetuate the memory of these noble pioneers and their 
herculean labors, which have transformed the wilderness into the 
present happ}', prosperous and beautiful County of Rush. To 
carrjr out this pious determination Old Settlers' Meetings were in- 
stituted, where the veterans of the past could meet and enjoy a 
reunion with their old comrades, who had stood shoulder to shoulder 
with them in their days of labor, of hardship, and privation, where 
they could recount their experiences, adventures and the incidents 
that make up the history of our county. In 1869, after one or two 
preliminary meetings, the Old Settlers' Association was organized, 
with the Rev. D. M. Stewart as President, and the first regular 
meeting was held the third Thursday and 19th daj' of August, at 
the fair grounds. The committees, who had charge of it, had done 
well their part; a ver}^ large crowd of the Rush Count}^ citizens 
were there, with well filled baskets prepared to spend one day in 
the enjoyment of social intercourse with their friends and neighbors, 
and in listening to the tales of other da3-s as told b}' the grand old 
patriarchs, who yet remained among us. 

A number of distinguished men from a distance came in re- 
sponse to invitations. Among these were Governor Baker, Col. 
Blake, James M. Ray and Dr. Ryland T. Brown, from Indianapo- 
lis. The President, Rev. D. M. Stewart, called the meeting to 
order, at 10 A. M., and Elder John P. Thompson invoked the 
divine blessing and guidance on the exercises of the day. Letters 
from Elijah Hackleman and John Tyner were read, expressing 
their regret at not being able to be present on this joyful occasion. 
The President invited the old settlers to come forward and give 
some of the incidents and reminiscences of the early days of our 
county. Col. Joseph Nichols, J. P. Thompson and Col. Blake en- 
tertained and instructed the audience by relating their personal ex- 
periences in frontier life. The meeting now adjourned until 2 
P. M., and a dinner, such as Rush County maids and matrons 
always get up, was heartily enjoyed by all, in the free open air, 
b)eneath the grateful shade of the beautiful grove. The meeting 
having again been called to order, Harmon}- Laughlin and Peter 
Looney exhibited a number of interesting relics of olden times. 
J. M. Raj' gave a sketch of the settlement of the countr}' between 
White Water and White River. Dr. R. T. Brown then addressed 


the meeting, and, among other things of interest relating to our 
county, said that he had taken the first census of Rush Count}-. 
Isaac Pattison, George Davis, Wm. WilHams and A. M. Kennedy 
then made remarks suitable to the occasion. On motion of 
Rev. D. M. Stewart, the third Thursday in August was adopted 
and consecrated to the memory of the brave pioneers of Rush 
County. Since then this has been a sacred day to our citizens. 

Perhaps a full account of one of these meetings of later date, 
w^ould give a better idea of their general tenor, and the spirit per- 
vading the proceedings, than any general description. I here pre- 
sent the report of the eighth annual reunion of the Old Settlers, held 
on the third Thursday of August, 1876: "The audience was 
large and appreciative, the speeches very interesting, being the 
narratives of personal experiences and recollections. The statisti- 
cal mortuary record, read by the Rev. D. M. Stewart, showed 
that since the last meeting in August, 1875, some forty of the old 
settlers have departed this life and have gone to trj^ the realities of 
the uTiseen world. This shows how rapidly they are passing away. 
The result of the election for officers was. Dr. John Arnold, Presi- 
dent; Dr. W. H. Smith, Secretary; T. N. Link, Treasurer; and 
Rev. D. M. Stewart, Statistician. The Rev. Samuel Houshour 
gave a graphic and very amusing description of his, failures in var- 
ious financial speculations, but referred with just pride to his siic- 
cess as a teacher, and wound up by a few most forcible and appro- 
priate remarks addressed to the youth present, reminding them of 
their great obligations to their parents, who by industry and econ- 
omj', had started their children on the journey of life under circum- 
stances so much more favorable than they had themselves enjoyed. 
Mr. A. M. Kennedy, Mr. Jesse Thomas, Uncle Peter Looney and 
several others, gave interesting life experiences of early days, house 
raisings and log rollings, from eighteen to twenty-five days during 
one season, besides doing their home work. The amount and se- 
verity of the labor necessary for clearing off the forests was clearly 

"Mr. Charles Loehner, of Indianapolis, made a speech amusing 
and instructive — a combination of humor and good sense. Dr. 
John Arnold, upon taking the chair as President, delivered the fol- 
lowing address : ' Ladies and gentlemen — With unfeigned grati- 
tude I thank you for the honor conferred in choosing me to preside 
over the meetings of the Old Settlers of Rush County for the ensu- 
ing year. I appreciate the honor, for the subject matters there dis- 
cussed are consonant with mv fondest feehngs and deepest 
sympathies, relating as they do the reminiscences and experiences 
of the brave pioneers of this country. It is meet and proper that 


we should do as we have done to-day, assemble occasionally and 
review our recollections of the interesting incidents, the bitter pri- 
vations and incessant labors of those who have preceded us, by lis- 
tening to the true, the unadorned, and the deeplv touching tales of 
the venerable survivors. It is a grateful privilege to listen to the 
words of these brave men and women, who more than half a cen- 
tury- ago entered the then unbroken wilderness, animated by the 
hope and the determination to make for themselves and their chil- 
dren a home in this rich and pleasant land. Nerved by this heroic 
motive, they were undismayed b}- toil or hardship, and by their en- 
ergy and perseverance laid broad and firm the foundations of our 
present moral and social prosperit3^ 

" ' Though mere words can never pay the debt of gratitude we 
owe them, still let us show these venerable representatives of a 
past generation that we heartily appreciate their services and will 
honor and perpetuate their memories. Ever}- year their number is 
becoming less. Every year the pioneers of Rush Count}', in re- 
sponse to the roll call of death, are passing, one b}' one, to that 
'■ undiscovered country from whose bourn no traveler returns." 
But they are content to go, for they have lived long enough to 
witness the full fruition of their fondest hopes. During their lives 
the most marvelous changes have been effected. With retrospec- 
tive gaze they can look back to that time when the mighty forests 
covered all the land, a forest in which the rich luxuriance of vegeta- 
tion shaded every foot of the teeming soil. For in addition to the 
heavy growth of lofty trees, the dense and almost impassable under- 
growth of spice brush, pawpaw and other shrubs, was seen a pro- 
fusion of weeds and flowers of a hundred varieties, which have 
now disappeared, trod out by the foot of civilization. 

" 'Bounteous nature still smiles, the same fertile soil, the same 
broad plains, the same mighty rivers and murmuring rills, greet 
them to-day, whispering many a pleasant tale of youthful happy 
times. But, in all else, how chanfred! The rude log cabin has 
given place to the splendid residence, with all its surroundings for 
comfort, convenience and beauty. The small, stumpy clearing to 
the broad farm, with its highly cultivated fields of grain and its 
rich pastures, stocked with the finest varieties of horses, cattle, 
sheep and hogs. The blazed trace and the Indian path to the well- 
kept road, the turnpike and the railroad track. The saddle has been 
superseded bv the carriage, and where our parents picked their 
devious wav through the dim forest paths, we, reclining in luxurious 
ease on cushioned seats, roll along the broad, smooth, straight 
roads in carriages, whose every motion is as gentle as that of the 
infant's cradle. The school-house and the church, those best evi- 



dences of American progress and American civilization, and tlie 
onl}- true safeguards of a free government, are thickly scattered 
Over our land. But it is unnecessary to dwell longer on this topic, 
for the present is an open volume, which all may see and read for 
themselves, but of the fading past — the almost forgotten past — 
we must acquire all our knowledge from the lips of those gray- 
haired pioneers who yet survive to amuse and instruct the present 

" ' You cannot wonder that my feelings, my sympathies and m}' 
associations are indissolubly connected with those earlv days, when 
I tell you that it is now over fifty-iive years since I first planted my 
foot on the soil of that farm, which has ever since been the home 
of our famil}', and which I am proudly happy to call my own. It 
is endeared to me by a thousand tender and pleasing associations 
of childhood, youth and mature age. There is not a spot, a hill or 
a A'allev, a stream or a spring, and scarcely a tree or a shrub, with 
which I am not perfectly familiar, and I can hardly separate the 
idea of this farm from mj^ own personality. The thought of sell- 
ing it — of allowing it to pass into the unappreciative hands of 
strangers — is repulsive to every feeling of my heart and e\'ery in- 
stinct of my nature, and I hope to live and to die on it, surrounded 
by the many mementoes of the irrevocable years that have passed 
since I first knew and loved it — this home of my heart. 

" ' I am gratified to see so large a number here assembled, in spite 
of the very unfavorable weather. Had the day been fine we should 
have had an unprecedented crowd, composed of the very best ma- 
terial of Rush county. I would, in conclusion, respectfully invite 
every one here present, to be with us again at our next meeting, on 
the third Thursday in August, 1877, and to bring all their friends 
and families with them, for we hope to make that occasion one of 
profit and social enjo3mient — ' a feast of reason and a flow of soul.'" 

Heiuiiiiscenccs — A Squatter and his Home. — Jacob Dewe}' was 
a squatter on the fraction north of the Alger cemetery, in early 
daj's. He was a rich study. He was as poor as a man could be 
but always happy, always cheerful, always patient under the sharp 
and often well-merited reproaches of his better half, who would 
e.xpatiate on his indolence, improvidence andrecklessnessinlano-uao-e 
more pointed than polite. He came from Fayette County, but 
what spot claimed the honor of his birth I know not, but presume 
he was a Yankee from the consummate skill displayed in the work- 
ing of a bovine team. A pair of bulls was his most valuable and 
indeed, almost his onty worldly possession. With these he rolled 
the logs in the clearings, or with a rude sled hauled the rails for 
the fences of his neighbors, and thus eked out a livelihood, mainly 


obtained b}' his dog and gun, for he was a skilled hunter. He was 
a wild looking fellow, scarcely ever wearing anything to cover his 
long, tangled tawnj- locks except a fox-skin cap, with its pendant 
tail behind, with his buckskin breeches rolled up to his knees, and 
his shirt sleeves rolled up above his elbows. The furniture of his 
cabin was scanty and of the rudest description, fashioned by him- 
self with axe, auger and drawing-knife. The walls were orna- 
mented with the skins of wild animals shot or trapped by him; but 
the crowning ornament was the skin of a tremendous yellow rat- 
tlesnake, with eighteen or twenty rattles, so well stuffed with moss 
that it represented the terrible reptile with startling effect. By 
the side of it hung the head and claws of a bald eagle. But what- 
ever might be the povert}- of his surroundings, his table was 
alwavs bountifulh' supplied w'ith the best of venison, wild turke}', etc. 
He did considerable work for Mr. John Arnold, who was much 
amused and interested bj' the quaint sa3'-ings and doings of this child 
of the forest. Early one spring he was hauling and rolling logs 
for him in the creek bottom, and, having run his handspike under a 
large log, then passed his arm under it to draw the chain through, 
when he exclaimed that there was ice under there, and as soon as 
it was rolled over, lo ! there lay three large moccasin snakes, whose 
cold bodies he had mistaken for ice. Fortunately for him there had 
not been sufficient heat to arouse them from their winter torpor, and 
it was this that enabled him to pass his naked arm over those 
vicious reptiles with impunity. Under his rough, unpohshed and 
sometimes reckless manners, was concealed a generous and a manly 
heart. He was ever ready to assist any one sick or in distress to 
the utmost of his power. He possessed a large share of that 
friendly fraternal feeling so common among the earh' settlers, and 
the loss of which we hear so frequently bewailed by the hoary 
headed patriarchs, who enjoyed its pleasant warmth in their youth, 
and now contrast it with the cold seltishhess of the present genera- 
tion. When John Harlock was killed by the fall of a tree, he was 
among the first and most earnest to offer his services to do any- 
thing that was in his power for the distressed family. Mr. Harlock 
had a large lot of hogs, which, like all others running in the woods, 
had become almost as wild and savage as the natural denizens of 
the forest. These Dewey spent several days in hunting up and 
driving home prior to the sale, and it w^as about as disagreeable 
a job as can be imagined, and when asked his charge felt and ex- 
pressed great indignation that any one should think him mean 
enough to take pa}- from a poor widow for a few days' work. In 
the bosom of this imcultivated backwoodsman flowed as true a 
spirit of chivalry as ever animated the lofty paladins of the court 


of Charlemagne. Dewey lived in this neighborhood some , three 
or four years, until it became too crowded to suit his taste, when 
he pushed farther west, where the clearings were not so numerous 
and the game more abundant. He seemed to have no desire to 
o\\n land and make himself a permanent home, and he doubtless 
lived and died a \'erv poor but a ver-s' happy man. 

Perhaps a few extracts from papers contributed to the RushviUc 
Republican, in 1875, entitled, '-Reminiscences of an Old Settler," b}' 
Dr. John Arnold, will help to give correct ideas of earh' times. 
The first is from paper iSth, dated December iSth, 18S5: 

"x'Vt the head of the carnivorous aniipals stood the panther, 
alike dangerous from its cunning and ferocity. Its lithe, graceful 
form, formidable teeth, terrible claws, and fierce ej^es are familiar 
to all who have visited our menageries, but they can have but a 
faint conception of its wild and savage character when rouse,d to 
fury in its native woods. The bravest hunter attacked it with cau- 
tion; made sure that the priming was in the pan and that his flint 
was in good order, and that his long hunting knife was loose in its 
sheath, for, he well knew, that if his ball failed to strike a vital 
part, the wounded and ferocious beast would inevitabl}' attack him, 
and that perhaps after one blow with his rifle, his life rested on the 
cool and effective use of his sharp knife, and even theVi could not 
hope to come scatheless from the desperate conflict. Unless 
wounded they seldom attack a grown person. In the wild woods 
the panther successfully hunts the fleet deer, and their mode of cap- 
turing their prey exhibits their innate craftiness. Crouching him- 
self on some overhanging tree, above the path leading to some lick 
fre<|uented by the deer, he silently and patiently awaits his victim, 
and as soon as within reach, springs upon it with a wild scream of 
fierce triumph. On the borders of the settlements he is fearfulh' 
destructive of calves, hogs, sheep, etc., and has no objection to a 
child when it comes in his way. His sharp, peculiar scream at the 
midnight hour, echoing through the forest, is no pleasant sound, 
expressing the unappeasable ferocity of the beast, and suggestive 
of danger and death. 

'T shall never forget one winter night, when my father, having 
butchered his hogs, took a basket full of the fresh meat to my 
uncle Isaac Arnold's, I as usual, accompanying him. At that time 
I had a powerful dog called Ring of the native breed of mongrel 
hounds, valuable for its hunting propensities; a bold, courageous 
fellow, ne\'er known to quail before an animal of any kind, until 
that night. It was about a mile to my uncle's, the night was cold and 
starlight. Just after dark my father and I started, followed, I was going 
to say, b)- Ring, but the word is not correct, preceded would be 


more appropriate, for Jie went before, taking wide circuits, scour- 
ing tiie woods in every direction, in quest of game. We had gone 
but a short distance, when we were startled by the distant scream 
of a panther. In a little while it was repeated, but evidentl}^ nearer; 
this appalling sound was repeated every few minutes, evidently 
rapidly approaching us. After the third crjr, Ring came rushing 
to us, following closely at our heels decidedly frightened, growling 
fiercel}', but utterly refusing to go one step in advance of us. I 
know not whether, at some past time, he had a taste of the quality 
of the panther's teeth and claws, or whether his instinctive sagacity 
/ told him that there was something to be feared, but nevertheless, 
though scared, I believe he would have fought to the death, if we 
had been attacked. We had now gone more than half the distance, 
and retreat would have been as hazardous as advance, and my 
father decided to go on, and if the animal showed himself, to set 
down the basket of meat for his supper, and while he was devour- 
ing it, we would without standing on any ceremony, go on to Uncle 
Isaac's. But still the situation was not pleasant, and grew more 
exciting as we approached the clearing, and the savage beast 
rapidly nearing us, still emitting those wild and peculiar screams. 
At last he was so near, that we could occasionally hear the crack- 
ing of the brush, as he walked a short distance from, and parallel 
with us, and we momentarily expected him to make a decisive rush, 
but he did not do so, but just as we entered the gate he uttered a 
prolonged scream, the most intense and fearful of all, as it expressed, 
his rage and disappointment. This animal was doubtless attracted 
b}' the scent of the fresh meat, which induced him to treat us to 
such a serenade. After remaining an hour or so, we started for 
home, my uncle having provided us with two shot guns, heavily 
loaded with coarse shot, so that we were pretty well prepared to , 
give the panther a warm reception if he should molest us, but we 
neither saw nor heard anything of him. He had probably gone 
away, or if he still lurked in those dark woods was silent. After 
remaining in the neighborhood, for some daj^s, and committing 
various depredations on stock, he departed and we heard of him 
no more." 

The following is from the 19th paper of " Reminiscences of an 
Old Settler," Dec. 24, 1875: 

There were a few wolves occasionally seen in this part of the 
countiy for several years, after its first settlement, probablj' coming 
from the wilder regions of the northwest, where the axe of the 
pioneer had not j'-et disturbed the solitude of the primeval forest. 
A 3'oung calf or a pig was a tempting feast that they could not 
pass b)-, but mutton seemed to be the favorite flesh above all others, 





and the settlers who had a few sheep, whose warm fleeces, w^henr 
transformed by the patient labor of his wife, into flannel, jeans and 
linsey, should clothe and protect his family from the frosts of winter, 
had to see that they were up ever}' night and securely enclosed in 
a high pen near the cabin. Spite of all those precautions, they of- 
ten fell victims to their natural enemies to the great loss and re— 
gret of the owner. 

The long, dismal howl of the wolf, uttered at intervals during' 
the night, is not cheerful music to listen to, but does not in- 
stinctively terrif}', as does the fell cry of the panther coming to the 
ear, fraught with the irrepressible ferocity of that animal. The 
dogs will eagerly pursue and readil}' attack the wolf, though there 
are few that willingly dare the terrors of the panther's claws. The 
wolf was not only destroyed by the rifle ball of the hunter, as he 
sought him in his hiding place in the dense and thorn}' thickets of 
the swamp, but the trap also did good service, frequently contain- 
ing one of those fiercely snarling and snapping beasts. The trap 
was built of substantial logs and bated with venison or some other 
fresh meat, which was securedly fastened to a trigger, which be- 
ing moved, brought down the trap, securely holding the frightened 
and furious wolf, in spite of all his desperate struggles. Another 
method, and one from the sport afforded and the success attending 
it, perhaps the most popular, was the fall of a snow, for the hunters 
to turn out with dogs and guns and taking his track, tirelessly and 
relentlessly pursue to his death. Unless the rifle gave him his 
quietus, he fought desperately to the end, the quick snap of his 
powerful jaws, armed with their sharp teeth, making fearful 
wounds on the fiercely yelping pack surrounding him. 

It is a popular belief that the wolf has a peculiar penchant for 
the odor of assafoetida, and that if a person carries it about him, 
it will attract any within reach of its penetrating perfume. I have 
heard it stated by old hunters, that if a man rubs this fetid gum 
on the soles of his shoes, and then walks through the woods, where 
they are lurking, that in a short time, they will be scenting and 
following in his footsteps, and that by making a circuit back on his 
track he will be enabled to get a shot. I shall never forget while 
memory endures, a startling interview I had with one of these 
shaggy monsters. It was in the autumn of 1S23, that for some 
two weeks, the nights had been made hideous by the melancholy 
howls of a wolf, who also made his presence kiiown by various 
depredations on the stock of the settlers, who had hitherto failed to 
discover his hiding place, and give him his deserts. There was a 
young woman, living in our family, whom my mother had brought 
from England, named Jane Richardson. She, on account of some- 


nervous affection, constantly carried, in a small bag suspended by 
a ribbon around her neck, some assafcetida, and being aware of 
the popular belief on the subject, had a perfect horror of wolves, 
being hrmly pursuaded that if she ever encountered one he would 
attack and destroy her. 

One day, day being sent on some errand to my uncle Isaac Ar- 
nold's, and being accompanied by me, when w^e had got about 
half way there we heard a rustling in the dr}^ leaves, and look- 
ing in the direction of the sound saw a gigantic wolf, with his 
fore-feet resting on a log, deliberately surveying us. He was 
not more than thirty or thirty-five yards from us. Poor Jane 
gave one look, then uttering scream after scream, fled for home 
as fast as her legs, under the stimulus of overwhelming ter- 
ror, could carry her. I felt disposed to follow her example, but 
remembered that I had heard Swanson, a famous hunter, a few 
days before say, that the wolf would not attack even a woman or 
child if they boldty faced him, but that if the}' turned and fled it 
would be sure to kill them. Now as Jane had got such a start 
and could probably out-run me, I concluded that if an}- one had to 
be eaten up it would be me, and that my only chance for safety was 
to put a bold face on the matter. These thoughts flashed through 
mv mind quick as lightning, and I instantly picked up a handspike 
that had lain there since the rolling of the logs out of the road, and 
holding it perpendicularly before me with both hands, slowly 
stepped backwards, still keeping my eye on the wolf. He seemed 
to look at me with supreme indifference, neither manifesting fear 
nor anger, but turning his head, so as to keep his eyes on me as I 
retired. All at once he stepped off the log, threw his head back 
and gave one long loud howl and deliberate!}'' trotted awa}-. I pre- 
served my defiant attitude until he had disappeared and I could no 
longer hear the rustling of the dry leaves as he moved away, when 
dropping the handspike I turned and ran, and I can truly say that 
I experienced ten-fold more fear when running than I did while 
facing the foe. Long before I reached home I met my father and 
George Stretch (a hired hand), with their axes in their hands, run- 
ning with all their might, my father wild with fright, for Jane had 
told him, as she ran past where he was at work, that a wolf had 
killed me. We hurried home, where Jane had preceded us, with 
the same wild tale, and found my loving mother almost frantic with 
that agonizing anguish, which only a tender mother can feel, when 
she hears of the terrible death of a child by sudden violence. 
When the wolf moved away so deliberately through the woods, I 
never expected to see him again, but in this I was mistaken, for in 
about a week afterward he was killed by an old hunter, named 


Isaac Sparks, who sold his skin to mj^ uncle Isaac, and he, after- 
having it dressed, sent it to his brother, William Arnold, of Waytes 
Court, England, who prized it highly. And there I saw it again 
on my visit to the old home in 1S41. 


Joseph F. Aldridge, farmer and stock dealer, and one of the 
early settlers of Anderson Township, was born in this count}-, March 
15, 1824, son of John Aldridge, Jr., a native of Ohio, who was 
born about 1798, and died in this county in 1S42. The paternal 
grandfather of Mr. Aldridge came to Rush County, from Mary- 
land, and died here as did also the mother. The subject of this 
sketch is the third in a family of nine children. In 1850, Mr. 
Aldridge located on his present farm which consists of 276 acres 
of fine land. For several years he has been engaged in buying 
and shipping stock. His marriage took place in 1S51, to Miss Susan 
Stines, of this countv, born March 10, 1832. They have four chil- 
dren, viz.: Marshall H., Daily C, Lucinda P. and Ida I. Mr. Al- 
dridge was formerlv a Whig, but is now a staunch Republican. He 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
is an honest, upright citizen and commands the respect of the entire 
community in which he resides. 

James A. Barton, a native of Bourbon County, Ky., was 
born April 12, 1823, son of William and Ehzabeth (Summers) 
Barton, and is of English descent. The father of our subject was 
born in 1800 and died September 13, 1830. His mother was born 
in 1795 and lived to a good age. The Barton family came to 
Rush County in 1847, and our subject settled near Milroy, where 
he remained until 1856, when he removed to his parents' place of 
residence. Our subject began farming in early life and now owns 
138 acres of well improved land in the western part of Anderson 
Township. Mr. Barton was married in 1851, to Miss Lucinda 
Amos, who was born in this count}^ August 8, 1832, and died here 
August 23, 1874. '^o ^^^ above marriage are these children, viz.: 
William L., born December 9, 1853; Lura, born July 29, 1S55, and 
Ella I., born July 28, 1857. Politically, Mr. Barton is a Republican, 
and has been a resident of Anderson Township for more ihan forty 
years and is an honored and respected citizen. His son William L., 
was made a Mason in 1875, ^^^ i^ now W. M., of Milroy Lodge 
No. 139, F. & A. M. The family is extensively known and 


William A. Blair, Trustee of Anderson Township, was born 
in Adams County, Ohio, April iSth, 1832, being the eldest in a 
family of twelve children, born to William L., and Catharine E. 
(Steen) Blair, the former a native of Middle Tennessee, born in 
1803, and died in 1870; the latter born in Ohio in 1811, and died 
in 1877. They were members of the Presb3^terian Church and 
were true Christian people. Our subject received a limited edu- 
cation and remained under the parental roof until twentj-'-three 
years of age, working at the carpenter trade in connection with 
farming. In August, 1S62, he enlisted in Company E, Ninety-first 
Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantrj-, and was in active service until 
the following winter, when his health failed and he was sent to the 
hospital at Gallipohs, where he remained five months. He was 
honorably discharged in October, 1S63, and the same j-ear located 
in Delaware County, Ind., where he engaged in the undertaking 
business and later, worked in the school furniture factory at Rich- 
mond, Ind. In June, 18S3, he came to Milroy, where he engaged 
in the hardware business, and has won the respect and confidence 
of all who know him. Mr. Blair is an ardent Republican, and in 
1886, was elected Township Trustee by that part}-. The marriage 
of Mr. Blair was solemnized April 12th, 1854, to Miss Mary E. 
Bloom, a native of Adams Countv, Ind., and daughter of John and 
Jane Bloom, natives of Ohio. Mrs. Blair died in 1855, and our 
subject was again married. Miss Sarah M. Freeman being the 
bride. Mrs. Blair was a native of Adams Count}-, Ohio, born in 
1823, and died in 1878, leaving- three daughters, viz.: Dora E., 
Austa E. and Ora Maud. Mr. Blair married his present wife Jan- 
uary 27th, 1879, she being Miss Jennie McKee, a native of Adams 
County, Ohio, born November 15th, 1857- To this union three 
children were born, viz. : Edith B., Ethel C. and Frank P. Mr. and 
Mrs. Blair are members of the United Presbyterian Church. He 
is a member of the G. A. R. Post, No. 456. 

Thoimas Jefferson Bowles was born in Harrison Count}', 
Ky., Noveml^er 13, 1811, son of Robert and Mary (Harris) 
Bowles, and is of Scotch extraction. His father was born in Scot- 
land and came to America and settled in Virginia and subsequently 
moved to Kentucky. He died in Rush Countv, Ind., when our 
subject was about nineteen years old. The mother was born in 
Maryland and died in Kentucky. The subject of this sketch came 
to Rush County when about seventeen years old, and here has re- 
sided ever since, excepting seven years he lived in Fulton County. 
In 1884 he removed to Milroy and there now resides. He owns 
more than 200 acres of fine, well-improved la'nd. Mr. Bowles 
and Miss Sarah Ann Jones were married in 1841. They 


were blessed with two children, viz. : Lucinda and Elizabeth. Mrs. 
Bowles died in Februarj-, 1875, and in the following September he 
was again married, the bride being Miss Mar}^ B. Mull, the daugh- 
ter of George and Mary Mull. Mr. Bowles is a Democrat and he 
and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
is an old and highly respected citizen of Rush Count}^ 

Hex. Barker Brown was born in Bourbon Count}-, Kj-., De- 
cember 5th, 1824, son of John and Polly (Searight) Brown, and is 
of Scotch-German descent. The father of Mr. Brown was born in 
Mason County, Ky., July lOth, 1792, and died April 7th, 1S57, in 
Rush County, Ind. The subject's mother was born in Bourbon 
County, Ky., December 25th, 1800, and now resides in this 
countjr, near Milroy. The Brown family came to Rush County in 
1825, and settled in Anderson Township. The subject of this 
sketch was the only child born to his parents. He was reared on 
the farm and received a good common school education, and at the 
age of nineteen 3'ears he began teaching school, which he continued 
for three years. In 1848, he commenced farming for himself and 
has since followed that vocation, and now owns more than 600 acres 
of land, and also one of the finest residences in Milroy. In Janu- 
ary, 18S7, he removed to Milroy, and in the following April en- 
gaged in the grain business in partnership with William Root. In 
politics, he was formerly a Whig, but since 1854, has been an ar- 
dent Democrat, and manifests an active interest in the affairs of 
that party. In 1S50, he was elected Justice of the Peace, and 
served four years. In 1862, Mr. Brown was Citizen Wagonmaster 
of the Sixty-eighth Indiana Volunteers, and was taken pris- 
oner near Mumfordsville, K}-. In 1863, he assisted to drive Mor- 
gan from the state. In 1874, ^^ ^^'^^ elected Joint Representative 
from the counties of Rush, Decatur and Ripley, bv a majority of 
750. In iSSo, he was a candidatefor re-election, and was defeated, 
and in 18S2 was again nominated for Representative and a second 
time defeated by the Republicans. The marriage of Mr. Brown 
occurred in 1S4S to Miss Nancy Farlow, a native of Rush County, 
who was born October ist, 182S, daughter of Hiram and Betsey 
(Townsend) Farlow, natives respectively of North Carolina and 
Kentuck}-. To this union four children were born, viz. : George W., 
Mary A., Elizabeth E. (deceased), and Joseph W. (deceased). 
Mr. Brown is a Universalist, and is a prominent and highly res- 
pected citizen. His portrait appears elsewhere in this volume. 

Isaac Crane, son of William and Saliie (Selby) Crane, 
was born in Rush County, Ind., November 27th, 1S33, and is of En- 
glish lineage. The parents of our subject were natives of Harrison 
County, Ky.; the father, born in 1812, died in this county August 


i2th, 1884, and the mother, born in 1814, died in Shelby County, 
March 6th, 1886. The paternal grandfather of Isaac was a soldier 
in the War of 1812 and died in this count}^ in 1858. The subject 
of this biography, is the eldest of two children, by his father's first 
marriage; was raised on the farm and received an ordinary educa- 
tion. Since the age of twenty j'ears he has farmed for himself, 
and in 1856, purchased 349 acres of land, and is now the wealthiest 
man in Anderson Township. He was married October nth, 1S55, 
to Miss Belinda Camerer, of Rush County, born in June, 1836. 
To this union five children were born, viz. : Marshall H., William B., 
George M., Clara and Emma. Mrs. Crane died February 22nd, 
187 1, and February 24, 1874, he was a second time married, the bride 
being Miss Sarah Thomas, of Anderson Township, born August, 
1840. They are the parents of two children, viz.: Daisj- and 
Claude R. PoHtically, he is a Democrat and is a liberal, enter- 
prising and charitable gentleman. His sons, W. B. and George 
M., are prominent and successful teachers of this county. 

Jesse Conn was born in Cass County, Ind., Februarv 12th, 
1850, son of George and Helen (Hendee) Conn. The father of 
our subject was a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1820, and died 
in Cass County in 1866. His mother, a native of New York, was 
born in 1832, and came to Indiana at the age of twelve years, and 
now resides in Cass Count3^ The father of Mr. Conn was among 
the pioneer settlers of Indiana, and a farmer by occupation. The 
subject of this sketch was educated at the common schools, and 
from an earl}' age has followed the vocation of a farmer. In 1871 
he came to Rush County, and in 1874 settled on the farm where he 
now resides, which consists of 112 acres. He was married in 
187 1 to Miss Mary A. Crane, daughter of W. H. Crane, whose 
death occurred August 12th, 1884. To this union were born the 
following children : Elbertie, Walter, Alletha and Stella E. Mr. 
Conn is a Democrat and cast his first Presidential vote for Horace 
Greeley. He and wife are members of the Christian Church. 

Samuel Henry Davis, a leading farmer and stock-raiser, is 
a native of Fleming Count}^ Ky-, born June 3, 1831, the 
eldest of four children born to Robert and Elizabeth (Henr}^) 
Davis, and is of English- AVelsh lineage. The parents of our sub- 
ject were both natives of Fleming County, Ky., the father 
born September 4, 1799, '^"'^ '^^^^'^ ^^ Rush Count}-, Ind., October 
II, 1881, and the mother born June 27, 1805, and died Jul}- 27, 
1853. The paternal grandfather of Mr. Davis was John Davis, a 
Revolutionary soldier, a chair maker and a wheelwright, who, after 
his marriage, settled in Bucks County, Pa., and later removed to 
Fleming County, Ky., where he died about 1S13; his wife follow- 


ing him about 1835. Mr. Davis was educated at the common 
schools, and in 1855, began farming for himself. In 1858, he set- 
tled on the farm where he now resides and which contains 488 
acres. Themarriage of Mr. Davis was solemnized, August 9, 1854, 
to Miss Mary E. Henry, of Fleming Count}^ Ky., born July 23, 
1834. They have six children, viz. : James H., Robert S., Eliza- 
beth R., John S., Nancy M. and Charlie T. Politically, Mr. Davis 
is a Republican, and cast his first Presidential vote in 1852. Mrs. 
Davis is a member of the United Presbyterian Church. 

James R. Davis is a native of Rush County, Ind., born 
August 4, 1849, son of Robert and Elizabeth (Henr}') Davis, and 
is the youngest of four children, three of whom are yet living. The 
subject of this sketch was reared on the farm and was educated at 
the public schools, and what was then known as Richland Academy 
in this county. In 1870 he engaged in the tile business in Decatur 
and continued for three years, when he returned to this county and 
engaged in farming his brother's farm in Anderson Township. In 
1 87 5 he purchased the farm he now owns and which is situated 
near Milroy. There he continued to reside until 1882, when he 
removed to Milroy and engaged in the hotel and livery business; 
the former he continued three years and is yet engaged in the 
latter. In 1S73, Mr. Davis was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
J. Pullen, who died November i, 1885; and December 7, 1886, he 
was married to Miss Cora B. Spradling, a native of Franklin 
County, Ind., born in 1866. Mr. Davis is a Republican, and 
cast his first Presidential vote for Grant. Mr. and Mrs. Davis are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

William Duncan was born in Fleming County, Ky., June 
28th, 1815, son of Martin and Mary (Henry) Duncan, and is 
of Scotch-Irish lineage. The father of our subject, was born Octo- 
ber 17, 1777, in Pennsylvania and died in Decatur County, Ind., 
in 1857. He was the son of David Duncan, who after coming 
to America, first settled in Pennsylvania in 1765 and afterward, in 
1791 removed to Marion County, Ky., where he died in 1S27. 
The mother of our subject was born in Pennsylvania in 1791 
and died in Rush Count}^, Ind., in the spring of 1855 The 
Duncan family came to Indiana in 1824 and settled in what is 
now Decatur County. In 1843 the subject of this sketch came to 
Rush County and located where he now resides. Mr. Duncan 
owns 160 acres of good land, which was entered by Stephen 
Sharp in 1821. Our subject's first marriage occurred in May, 
1842, the bride being Miss Rosanna Mitchell, a native of Ohio. 
Mrs. Duncan died in 1865 and in 1867 Mr. Duncan was mar- 
ried to Miss Martha A. Ruddell, a native of Decatur Countv, 


born in 1826, daughter of William and Delilah (Cain) Rud- 
dell. Mr. Duncan was formerly a Whig, but he is now a Re- 
publican and for many j^ears has been a faithful member of the 
United Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Duncan is a member of the 
JVIethodist Church. 

George Brown Elstun was born near Milro}-, December 
2§th, 1S23, son of Eli J. and Anna (Brown) Elstun. The subject of 
this sketch was reared on a farm, and received a common school 
education. In 1844 he began teaching school and continued the 
same until 1847, when he began clerking for Dr. R. Robbins, of 
Milroy. In 1852 he purchased a general merchandise stock and 
began business for himself in Milroy. He has been successful, 
and is one of the most enterprising men the town has ever had. 
His marriage occurred in 1850, to Miss Priscilla Hill, a native of 
this count}'. Mr. Elstun is the father of three children, viz. : Olive 
A., Horace H. and Marion E. He is a Republican and a member 
of F. & A. M. 

Freeman Elstun, the gentleman whose name introduces this 
biography, is a native of Rush County, Ind., born where he now 
resides, August 3rd, 1828, son of Eli J. Elstun, who was a native 
of New Jerse}^ born in 1798 and died in this county in 1872. The 
mother of our subject, was born in Kentucky, in 1800 and died in 
this county in 1885. The Elstun family came originally from 
France and settled in New Jersey, from which place they emi- 
grated to this state and settled in Rush County about 1820, being 
among the first settlers in this portion of the county. He was 
reared on the farm, and attended the early schools of Anderson 
Township. At the age of twenty-one j'ears he began life for him- 
self and now owns the old Elstun homestead, which his 
father entered in 1820, also 142 acres, near Milroy. The 
marriage of Mr. Elstun was solemnized in 1852, to Miss Lu- 
cindia E. Lyon, a native of Decatur County, Ind., born in 1833, 
daughter of John and Margaret Lyon, who came to Indiana about 
1822. Mr. and Mrs. Elstun are the parents of the following chil- 
dren : Melissa A., James F., Ida M., and Minnie L. He is an ar- 
dent Republican and for more than fiftj'-eight years has been a 
resident of xVnderson Township. Mr. and Mrs. Elstun are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church and occupy a high position in the con- 
fidence and esteem of all with whom thej^ associate. 

Reuben J. Farlow was born in Orange Township, Rush 
County, April 15th, 1832; is the son of Hiram and Elizabeth 
(Townsend) Farlow, and is of English-Irish descent. His father 
was born in North Carolina, in 1804, and died in this county in Oc- 
tober, 1865. His mother was born in Kentuck}-, in 1808, and died 


in this county in 1881. The paternal grandfather was George 
Farlow, a native of North Carolina, and died in Madison Count}', 
Ind. The subject of our sketch was the fourth of twelve children, 
nine of whom are living. He was raised on a farm and received a 
common school education. In 1S55, he settled where he now lives; 
he owns 340 acres of well improved land. He was married Au- 
gust 14, 1855, to Miss Elizabeth C. Gosnell, who was born Octo- 
ber 27, 1831, the daughter of William and Susan (King) Gosnell. 
Her father was born in North Carolina, in 17S2, and died in Rush 
Countv, in 1870. Her mother was born in Virginia, about 1788, 
and died in Rush County, in 1826. To Mr. and Mrs. Farlow are 
two children living, Susan, born June 10, 1856, and Richard M., 
born September 14, 1S60. In politics, Mr. Farlow is a Democrat, 
and cast his first vote for James Buchanan. He began life as a 
renter, and was such for fifteen years. He is now one of the substan- 
tial farmers of the township. He and his wife are representatives 
of the early families of Rush Count}'. 

Joseph M. Farlow was born in Orange Township, this 
county, July 22nd, 1841. Is the son of Hiram and Elizabeth 
(Townsend) Farlow. He is the ninth of twelve children, nine of 
whom are living. He was raised on a farm and received a com- 
mon school education. He began working for himself at the age 
of twenty-one, and for more than ten years rented land. In 1874 
he removed to Anderson Township from Orange, and settled where 
he now lives. He now owns 126 acres of land. In 1864 he was 
married to Miss Lucinda Bowles, who was born in Fulton County, 
Ind., August 12, 1845, daughter of T. J. and Sarah Bowles. To 
this union have been born six children, viz.: EfRe M., born in 
1S65; James B., born 1866; Sarah E., born 1868; Ruby M., born 
1872; Mertie A., born 1882; Eda E., born 1877. Mr. Farlow as 
a politician is a Democrat. Mr. and Mrs. Farlow are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. He has made his own way in 
life, and has been very successful. He is a representative of one 
of the first families of this countv. 

John W. Ferree, a native of Clermont County, Ohio, was born 
August i2th, 1821, son of Moses and Keziah (Medaris) Ferree, 
and is of French extraction. The father of this gentleman was 
born in Bracken County, Ky., in 179S, and died in Rush County, 
Ind., in 1S63. The mother of Mr. Ferree was born in North Car- 
olina in iSoi, and died in this county m 1885. They were mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church and were known as zealous 
Christian people. The family here written of emigrated to Indi- 
ana from Ohio in 1836, and settled in Rush County, where the 
subject of this sketch has since resided. Our subject was reared 


on the farm and received such education as the pioneer schools of 
the county afforded. In 1852, he located on the farm where he 
now resides, and has continued his agricultural vocation with much 
success. The marriage of Mr. Ferree occurred September 21st, 
1844, to Miss SaUie Winship, who was born in Rush Count\', Ind., 
in 1S24, a daughter of Jesse Winship, Sr., one of the pioneers of 
this county. They have three children, viz. : Elizabeth, William F. 
and John Locke. Mr. Ferree is a Republican of the true tA'pe, 
and in 1876, was elected to fill the office of County Commissioner 
for the Third District, which position he filled with much credit to 
himself. He had two brothers in the late war; one was killed at 
Resaca, and the other was seriously wounded at Columbus, Tenn. 
Mrs. Ferree is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
the family is extensivel}' known and highly respected. 

Joseph Harton, one of the leading and most successful far- 
mers of Rush County, was born in Monroe County, Ind., Feb- 
ruary 27, 1837. He is the son of Joseph and Margaret (Young) 
Harton, and is of Irish descent. His father was born in Antrim 
County, Ireland, in 1790, and died in Rush County, in 1873. The 
family came to America in 1836, and settled in Monroe County, 
near Bloomington, Ind., and then removed to Rush County in 
1853. Mr. Harton is the younger of two children; he was raised 
on the farm and received a common school education. He began 
farming in 1863, on rented land, and settled where he now resides 
in 1S6S. He owns 312 acres of very fine and well improved land. 
He was married in 1863, the bride being Miss Eily Brooks, a na- 
tive of Dearborn County, Ind., who was born in 1841. To this union 
were born seven children, viz.: William E., Charles H.,OrpherM., 
Clara, Margaret E., Ida E., and OUie. Mr. Harton politically is 
a Republican, and is an honorable, responsible man. Mrs. Harton 
is a member of the Methodist Church, and five of the children 
are members of the Christian Church. 

WiLLi.\M Julian, one of the old settlers of Rush County, was 
born May 6, 1837, son of Isaac Julian, a native of North Carolina, 
who was born in 1810 and died m Rush County, in 1S72. He 
came to this countj^ in a very early day, and was one of the first 
settlers of this township. The mother of William was C3Tena 
Julian, whose maiden name was Gosnell, a native of Kentucky, and 
was born in 1816, and now resides in Anderson Township. The 
subject of this sketch was raised on a farm, and received such edu- 
cation as the schools of that county afforded. He is a farmer, and 
his life of fifty years has been spent on the farm. He now owns 
186 acres of land and is a prosperous farmer. He was married in 
1S67 to Miss Eliza J. Overleese, also a native of this county, who 


was born August 26, 1846, the daughter of Henry and Martha A. 
Overleese. To this union were born two children, viz. : George W., 
born May 22, 1870, and Thomas A., born March 26, 1873. Mr. 
Julian has been a lifelong Democrat and cast his first vote for 
James Buchanan. He has succeeded through his own efforts, and 
is an honorable and highly respected citizen of Rush County. 

George L. Keisling, farmer, was born in Decatur County, 
Ind., May 3, 1828, son of William and Ludicy (Smith) Keisling, 
and is of German-English lineage. His father, a native of Vir- 
ginia, was born in 1802, and died in Decatur County, Ind., in 1885. 
His mother, a native of the same count}-, was born in 1801, and 
died in Decatur County, in 1873. The grandfather of our subject 
was George Keisling, who died in Virginia. The Keisling family 
came to Indiana in 1829, first settling in Shelbv County, where they 
remained until 1831, and then removed to Decatur Count}-. Mr. 
Keisling came to Rush County in the fall of 1850, and in 1855 set- 
tled on his present farm, which consists of 360 acres of fine land. 
The marriage of our subject occurred November, 1850, to Miss 
Mary Miller, a native of this county, born Ma}^, 1829, daughter of 
Michael and Sarah Miller. The}^ have five children, viz.: Sarah L., 
Leonidas W., William M., Calista J. and Mary. He is a Republi- 
can, and he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Keisling is a representative farmer and an honorable 

John T. Meek, one of the most extensive land owners and 
farmers in this county, was born in Decatur County, Ind., Feb- 
ruary 13th, 1S46, son of John and Sarah (Montgomery) Meek and 
is of English descent. His father was bbrn in Harrison County, 
Ky., in 1815, and his mother, a native of Decatur County, Ind., 
was born in 1821. The paternal grandfather of our subject 
was Samuel Meek, a Kentuckian by nativitj- — an 1812 soldier 
— and died in Decatur County prior to the birth of our subject. 
The Meek family came to Indiana about 1827 and settled in 
Decatur County. Our subject was reared on a farm and received 
a common school education. His life has been that of a farmer 
and stock-raiser and has been most successful. In 1878 Mr. 
Meek came to Rush County and settled where he now resides. 
He owns 960 acres of well improved land, and is one of the 
most prosperous farmers in this portion of Indiana. The marriage 
of Mr. Meek occurred in 187 1, to Miss Flora E. Bonner, who was 
born in Decatur County in 185 1, daughter of James and Martha 
(Lewis) Bonner. To this union three children were born, viz.: 
Lura H., born 1873; Willie B., born 1876, and Elbert E., born 1878. 


He is a pronounced Republican and alwaj's manifests a live inter- 
est in the affairs of his part}-. Mr. and Mrs. Meek are members of 
the United Presbj'terian Church. 

William Parker (deceased), was born in Rush Countj', Ind., 
January 7, 1840, son of John and Catherine (James) Parker, and 
was the youngest of five children. He was educated at the com- 
mon schools and his life was that of a farmer. In 1864, he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth Crane, a native of this county, born in 
1845. To this marriage the following children were born, viz.: 
John H., born in Anderson Township, Rush Co., January 26, 1866, 
and is now a student of the Danville (Ind.) Normal School,' and Min- 
nie A., who married Luther L. Harcourf, October 28, 1886, a na- 
tive of this state. Mrs. Parker died about 1S73, and the following 
year, Mr. Parker married Miss Josephine Crane, a sister of his for- 
mer wife. Mrs. Parker was born in this county, January 29, 1856, 
daughter of William H. and Sarah A. Crane, now deceased. Mr. 
Parker was a Republican and a member of the Christian Church. 
Mrs. Parker still owns the home farm, which is in a fair state of 
cultivation. She removed to Milroy in 1886, and now occupies 
one of the most pleasant residences in the village. Mr. Parker 
died in 1S83. He was public spirited in a high degree, and was 
always ready to help on popular enterprises. 

William S. Power, the gentleman whose name intro- 
duces this sketch, was born on the farm where he now 
resides, March 10, 1842, son o'f John D. and Mary A. (Smisor) 
Power, and is the eldest of nine living children. Mr. Power chose 
for his profession in life that of a farmer, which he began at the 
age of twenty-one 3-ears,- and which he has since continued with 
much success. In addition to farming, he was engaged in the mill- 
ing business in Milro}^ for a period of four j^ears. In 1875, Mr. 
Power settled where he now resides. For many years he has 
given especial attention to stock raising, and now has some of the 
best stock in the township. Mr. Power was married in 1866, to 
Miss Mary Crosby, a native of Rush County. To that marriage 
are these children: Cora E., born 1868; Frank A., born 1870; An- 
nie K., born 1872, and Grace, born 1876. Mrs. Power died No- 
vember 2, 1877, and our subject was married Maj^ 29, 1884, 
to Miss Martha A. Spraker, a native of Decatur County, Ind., born 
February 3, 1843, daughter of Daniel and Martha Spraker, natives 
of Virginia, and who were among the early settlers of Indiana. 
The father of Mrs. Power was born December 20, 1811, and died 
August 19, 1855. Her mother was born December 13, 1815, and 
died December 29, 1859. In politics, Mr. Power always supports 


the men, who, in his judgment, are the best. He and family are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The portrait of Mr. 
Power appears on another page of this volume. 

Richard M. Power, farmer, was born near Milroy, Rush 
Co., Ind., September i8, 1844, son of John D. and Mar3' A. 
(Smisor) Power, and is of German-English descent. His father 
was born in 1819 and died in this county in 1S56. The mother of 
Richard was born in Ohio about 1S25, and now resides in this countjr. 
The subject of this biography is the second eldest in a family of 
ten children, and was reared on a farm, was a student at the country 
schools, and for a short time taught school. In 1S68 he engaged 
in the milling business and continued until 1872, \\'hen he turned 
his attention to farming, which has since been his principal voca- 
tion. He was married in 1869 to Miss Melissa McNiel, a native of 
Wabash Count}-, Ind., who died in 1S71. In 1876 Mr. Power was 
married to Miss Sarah E. Reese, of Harrison County, Kv., born 
June 18, 1844. He is an ardent Democrat, and manifests much 
interest in behalf of his party, and is an honorable and greatly 
esteemed citizen. Mr. Power's second wife died August 12, 1884, 
and September 2, 1885, was a third time married, the bride being 
Miss Jennie Terhune, a native of Dearborn County, Ind., born in 
1856. They have one child, Mary E. 

William Ricketts, one of the principal farmers of Anderson 
Township, was born in Fleming County, Ky., March 21, 1S20, 
son of Edward and: Sarah (Storey) Ricketts, and is of Scotch- 
Welsh origin. His father was born in Pennsylvania, in 1787, and 
died in Rush County, September 8, 1S38. His mother was born 
in Kentucky, in 1789 and died in Rush County, in 1854. '^^e 
paternal grandfather of our subject was John Ricketts, a Pennsyl- 
vanian, and was one of the first settlers of Kentucky, and died in 
that state. The Ricketts family emigrated to Rush County, in 
1831, and settled four miles northeast of Milroy. That portion of 
the county in that day was almost an unbroken wilderness. When 
the subject of this sketch was sixteen years of age or in the fall of 
the year 1S36, as he was returning home from Jacob Plough, he 
met in the dense woods a large, black bear, and this perhaps was 
the last bear ever seen in this neighborhood. Mr. Ricketts was 
raised on the farm, and was a student at the Pleasant Run School- 
house. At nineteen 3'ears of age he went to Greene Count}', and 
there taught school one winter. In 1848, he settled on a farm just 
below Milroy, and there remained until 1864, he then moved to 
Greensburg and there remained until 1879, when he came back to 
Anderson Tomnship and settled where he now lives. He owns 
1S8 acres of well improved land. He was married January 31, 


1S50, to Miss Nanc}' J. Maunt, who was born in Anderson Town- 
ship, July 19, 1S30; she was the daughter of William and Catherine 
Maunt early settlers of this county. From 1S54 to 1858 he served 
as Justice of the Peace. He was elected Township Trustee of this 
township, in 1859, and re-elected in 1S60, and also in 1861. Mr. 
Ricketts was formerh^ a Whig, but is now a staunch Republican. 
He and his wife are members of the Christian Church and are 
among the most highly respected people of this part of Rush 

George W. Rowe, editor Milroy Weekly IVews, was born in 
Boone Count}^ Ind., January i, 1855, son of Elias and Sidne}^ 
(Gochenour) Rowe. His father was a native of Kentucky, and 
his mother was by birth, a Virginian. Her death occurred in Boone 
County, Ind., in 1855. Our subject was reared on the farm, where 
he remained until seventeen 3'ears of age. He received a good 
education and in 1872, began teaching school which he continued 
fifteen 3'ears. January i, 1887, he began publishing the Milroy 
Tillies^ and the following Julv he changed the name to jMilrox A'ezcs, 
and this now continues. Mr. Rowe was married December 28, 
1876, to Miss Izora Bell, of Boone County, Ind. They are the 
parents of two children, ahz. : Arlie and Olive. Mr. Rowe is a 
member of the Masonic Fraternity, made such in 1886, and is po- 
litically a Republican. He is a popular and enterprising gentle- 
man, and deserves the patronage of the entire community. Mr. 
and Mrs. Rowe are members of the Christian Church. 

William Sharp was born in Harrison Count}', Ky., June 12, 
1827, and is the son of Archibald and Elenor (McClure) Sharp. 
The father of our subject was born in Harrison County, Ky., in 
1802, and died in Rush County, Ind., in 1S33. His mother was 
born in Bourbon County, Ky., in 1801, and died in Starke County, 
Ind., in 1S68. The subject of this sketch came to Rush County 
in 1832, and settled in what is now Anderson Township. Mr. 
Sharp was raised on the farm and attended the earl}' schools of the 
county. In early life he learned the carpenter's trade, which he 
continued a short time, and in 1850 he settled on the farm where 
he now lives. Mr. Sharp was married July 17, 1851, to Miss 
Clementine Henderson, who was born in Kentucky, December 25, 
1831. Mr. and Mrs. Sharp are the parents of six living children, 
viz.: Gustus E., Sarah A., James N., Josephine, William W., and 
Frank. The death of Mrs. Sharp occurred January 24, 1883. 
PoHticallv, Mr. Sharp is a Republican and is highly esteemed by all 
who know him. The family are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

Joel F. Smith was born in Harrison Count}-, Ky., March 5, 


1826, son of Paul and Christian (Jaquess) Smith, and is of Ger- 
man-English descent. His father was born in PennS3'lvania, in 
1786, and died in Milroy, in 1861. His mother was born in New 
Jersey in 1786, and died in Milroy, in 1864. The Smith family 
came to Rush County in 1S36, and settled in Anderson Township. 
At the age of fourteen years, our subject began clerking in a store 
and the greater part of his life has been spent in the merchandise 
business. In 1S56 Mr. Smith was elected Treasurer of this countv, 
and in 1858 was re-elected, and was one of the best Treasurers the 
county ever had. Mr. Smith was united in marriage to Miss Eliza- 
beth E. Marsh, November 3, 1853. She is a native of Union 
County, Ind., born in 1834. Mrs. Smith died in 1872, and in 
1874 he was married to Mrs. Indiana Crawford, daughter of 
Col. Joel Wolf, who fell during the battle of Richmond, K3\ 
Mrs. Smith was born in Rush County, Februar}^ 22, 1837. Politi- 
cally, Mr. Smith is a Republican; he is a Mason and an Odd Fel- 
low, and is one of the leading merchants of Milroy. Mrs. Smith 
is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Jetson W. Smith (deceased) was bom September 17, 1840, 
in Nicholas Count}', Ky. , son of Jetson and Maiy A. (James) 
Smith, who were natives of Kentucky and Maryland, respectively. 
The subject of this biography was the only child by his father's 
second marriage. He was reared on a farm, and was educated 
through his own exertion. Politically, he w^as a Democrat. In 
1876, he was elected Clerk of Rush County, and re-elected to the 
same position in iSSo. March 22, 1S65, he was united in marriage 
to Miss Clarinda Rardin, a native of Rush Countv, Ind., born 
March 27, 1840, daughter of David and Abigail (Wilson) Rardin. 
To this union was born two children, viz. : Cora E., born Septem- 
ber 24, 1S66, and died Januar}- 12, 1S84, and OHver W., born 
December 26, 1871. Mr. Smith died September 8, 1S79, and soon 
after Mrs. Smith removed to the farm southwest of Milrov, \\'here 
she remained until 1885, when she came to Milro}', where she 
now resides. Mr. Smith w^as a Mason, an efficient officer, and was 
greatly beloved by those who knew him best. Mrs. Smith is a 
member of the Christian Church. 

William A. Somjiervill, one of the pioneer farmers of An- 
derson Township, was born in Fleming Ceunty, K}'., April 
23, 1819, the son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Lee) Sommervill, and 
is of Irish origin. His father, a native of Ireland, was born near 
Belfast about 1792, and came to America about 1801, and settled 
in Fleming Count}', Ky., but afterward removed to Decatur 
County, Ind., where his death occurred May i, 1847. The paternal 
grandfather of our subject, also a native of Ireland, came to Amer- 


ica, and died in Fleming Count}^, K}-, about 1828. The 
mother of Mr. Sommervill was born in Fleming Count}-, }^y., 
about 1792, and died in Rush Count}-, November 22, i860. The 
subject of this biography, is the eldest of six children and received 
a common school education. In 1S3S, he began serving an appren- 
ticeship at cabinet making and after completing the same, he con- 
tinued this occupation for himself, about twenty years. September 
I, 1842, our subject came to Rush County and settled near where 
he now resides. He now owns 310 acres of well improved land, 
and is one of the most successful farmers in this township. The 
marriage of Mr. Sommervill occurred September 7, 1842, to Miss 
Eliza Hood, born in Fleming County, Ky., October, 1819, daughter 
of Samuel and Isabella (Lee) Hood. To this union are three chil- 
dren, viz.: J. Samuel, Isabella J., and Ira A. Mr. Sommervill was 
formerly a Whig, but is now a Republican, and cast his first presi- 
dental vote for William H. Harrison. Mr. and Mrs. Sommervill 
are members of the United Presbyterian Church. 

Joseph Spurgeon, a native of Rush County, Ind., was born 
June 20, 1S37; is the son of Joseph Spurgeon who was born in 
Ohio, and died in Rush County, in April, 1877, at the age of sev- 
ent}--eight. He emigrated to Indiana at an early day, and was one 
of the first men to enter land in this county. The mother of Jo- 
seph was Fannie Spurgeon, whose maiden name was Lane. She 
was born in Ohio and died in Rush County, December 10, i860, at 
fifty-four years of age. Mr. Spurgeon is the a family of 
thirteen children, seven of whom are living. He grew to manhood 
on the farm and received a common school education. He began 
for himself at the age of nineteen years. For about sixteen years 
he has lived on his present farm, which consists of about 100 acres 
of fine land, and is also one of the best improved farms in this 
county. He was married in 1862 to Miss Hester A. Layton, who 
was born in Rush County in 1839, and died in 1876, leaving two 
children, viz. : Mary E., and Ossanette. Mr. Spurgeon was a sec- 
ond time married, the bride being Miss Julia Spohm who was born 
in Rush County, in 1847. To this union were born two children, 
viz.: Ira and Daisy. Mr. Spurgeon as a politician is a Democrat. 
He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
is an enterprising farmer, and he and his family are extensively 
known and highly respected. 

Hon. William Thomas, the pioneer whose name intro- 
duces this sketch, is a native of Bourbon County, Ky., born April 
20, 1804, son of Daniel and Sarah Thomas, whose maiden name 
was Amos and who was a native of Bourbon County, K}-., and 
emigrated to Rush County in the primitive days of this State, and, 

/^ //L6:U , 

-"(uar^^mT^ oD^^^^^pzJ 


here died. The father of Mr. Thomas was a native of Delaware, 
but in earlv hfe emigrated to Kentuck}', where he was married and 
in 1822, came to Rush County. He was among the first to make 
settlement here and his death occurred here. The subject of this 
biography came to Rush County in 1827, and in 1835 settled where ■ 
he resides. At that earlv date, the country was one unending wil- 
derness. Then neighbor helped neighbor, and in 1830, Mr. Thomas 
spent twenty-eight days assisting his neighbors, either raising log 
cabins or rolling logs. Politicallv, Mr. Thomas was formerly a 
Whig, but since the birth of the Republican party he has always 
been an ardent supporter of its principles. In 1846, he was elected 
to represent Rush Count}' in the General Assemblv of Indiana, and 
served in that body during the session of 1S46 and 1847, and dis- 
charged the duties with a discreetness and judgment satisfactory 
to his constituents. Prior' to his election to the legislature, he was 
elected as one of the Associate Judges of Rush County, but on 
account of the law being repealed he only served a short time. 
The marriage of Mr. Thomas occurred in 1S25, to Miss Margaret 
Hannah, of Kentucky. By that union are these children, viz.: 
Wesley, Daniel, Sarah A., Martha and AVilliam. Mrs. Thomas 
died in 1849, and in 1850, the subject of this memoir was united in 
marriage to Mrs. Sarah Green, whose maiden name was Houston, 
and whose death occurred in 1875. By occupation Mr. Thomas 
is a farmer, though in early life he worked at the carpenter trade 
for some time. He has 250 acres of good land, and for fifty-two 
years has been a resident of this township. Mr. Thomas is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church, and his life has always been above re- 
proach, and the respect for him is co-extensive with his ac(juaintance. 
Samuel C. Thomas, M. D., is a native of Hamilton County, 
Ohio, born March 5, 1832, and is the eldest of eleven children 
born to John and Abigail (Carter) Thomas, and is of Welsh-Irish 
descent. His father was born in Bourbon County, Ky., in 1806, 
and died in Dark county, Ohio, in 1879. He was a ship carpen- 
ter and for more than twenty-five years was a Justice of the Peace. 
The paternal grandfather of our subject was Daniel Thomas, a na- 
tive of Kentucky, who came to Rush County in the pioneer days 
and settled near Milroy, about 1848. The mother of Dr. Thomas 
was born in New Jersey, in 1814, and died at Milrov, in 1887. The 
early boyhood of our subject was spent at Carthage, Ohio. At 
the age of eleven 3'ears he went to Darke County, Ohio, where he 
remained on the farm with his Grandfather Carter until 1850, 
when he removed to Milroy, and until 1853 his winters were spent 
in the school room, as teacher, and in summers he worked on the 
farm. In 1853 our subject entered Asbury — now Depauw — Uni- 


versit}', where he remained two years, and there began the study of 
medicine in the office of Dr. J. C. B. Wharton. In 1S58, Dr. Thomas 
graduated at the Eclectic College of Medicine, at Cincinnati, and 
since that date has been engaged in the practice of his profession. 
He is one of the oldest practitioners in the count}'. October 14, 
1858, Dr. Thomas was united in marriage to Miss Emily Clements, 
a native of Franklin, Ind., born March 13, 1833, daughter of Isaac 
and Nancy (Birt) Clements, natives of Marj'land. To this union 
are the following children: Abbie F., Kate A., Ernest B. and 
Claude B. Mr. Thomas is a Republican, and a Mason. He and 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

William Whiteman was born in Rush County, Ind., June 5, 
1829, and is the fourth in a famil}' of eight children born to Jacob 
and jMary (Farlan) Whiteman, who were natives respectively of 
Pennsylvania and North Carolina. His father, Jacob Whiteman, 
emigrated to Indiana in 1820, being one of the first settlers of 
Rush County. His death occurred in 1865. The mother of Mr. 
Whiteman was born in 1793 and died in 1880. The subject of this 
sketch was educated at the common schools. He now owns iSo acres 
of land, which was entered in 1S22, by his father. Mrs. Whiteman 
is a native of this county, born May 11, 1834. Mr. and Mrs. 
Whiteman are the parents of the following" children: Sarah E., 
Horace G., William H., Mar}' E., Martha J., and Emity E. He is 
a Republican, and a member of Milroy Lodge No. 139, F. & 
A. M. Mr. Whiteman has been a resident of this township for 
fifty-eight years, and is highly esteemed by his fellow citizens. 

Benjamin F. Winship was born in Rush County, Ind., De- 
cember 18, 1845, son of Jabez L. and Jane (Mullikin) W^inship. 
His father was born in Fayette County, Ind., ia 1814, and died in 
Rushville, in 1885, and his mother was a native of Bath County, 
Ky., born in 1818, and died in Anderson Township, this county, 
July 9, 1878. His paternal grandfather was Jesse Winship, a na- 
tive of Rochester County, N. Y., and one of the first settlers of 
this county. The father of our subject was also a pioneer of this 
count}'. At the age of twenty-two years Mr. Winship began life 
for himself, and now owns 160 acres of well improved land. 
The marriage of Mr. Winship took place in 1873 to Miss Aurelia 
Smith, who was born in Milroy, in 1S54, daughter of Austin and 
Anna Smith. They have one child, Wilbur H., born May 15, 
1875. Mr. Winslnip is a Democrat, and in 1S69 was made a mem- 
ber of Milroy Lodge, No. 139, F. & A. M. Mrs. Winship is a 
member of the Christian Church. 

Amos Winship, one of the most prosperous and enterprising 
farmers of Rush County, Ind., was born on the farm, where he 


now resides, in 1S47. His father, John Winship, was born near 
where the city of Connersville, Ind., now stands, in 1812, and^ 
was one of the first men, born in the State of Indiana. His death 
occurred in Rush County, in 1863. The mother of our subject 
was Elizabeth Winship, whose maiden name was Posten and who^ 
died in this count}', in 1854. Tlie subject of this biographj' re- 
ceived a common school education and before he gained his ma- 
jorit}-, began the battle of life for himself. As a successful farmer,, 
he has no superior in Anderson Township. For some time past 
jVIr. Winship has been giving considerable attention to the breeding 
of fast horses, and now has some of the best stock in this part of 
the State. Mr. Winship now owns 270 acres of well improved 
land. His present residence was built in 18S0, at a cost of $5,000. 
He was united in marriage in 1869, to Miss Lizzie Hunt, a native 
of FrankHn County, Ind., who was born in 1850. To this union 
are the following children : Gertrude and Noble C. He is a Demo- 
crat, and his wife is a member of the Christian Church. 


Perry Akers, who has resided in Center Township for the 
past fifty-eight years, was born in Montgomer}' Count}-, Ohio, 
October 3, 1827, being the son of Burrel and Catharine (Hartsellj 
Akers, who were nati^'es of Virginia and Pennsylvania respecti^'elv, 
the former of English and the latter of German descent. When he 
was two years old, his parents came to Rush County and settled 
upon a farm in Center Township, where both the mother and 
father spent the rest of their lives, the former dying October 10, 
1869, and the latter dying December 28, 1869. The subject of 
this sketch grew up to manhood upon the farm where his parents 
settled, and upon it he has chiefl\' continued to reside ever since. 
His occupation throughout his entire life has been farming. He 
was married December 24, 1873, to Miss Loudoscia J. Cummings, 
who was born in Guilford Countv, N. C, October 11, 1S44. Her 
parents were Enos F. and Emeline (Ballinger) Cummings. In 
November, 1S84, Mr. and Mrs. Akers removed to Carthage, 
this county, where Mrs. Akers died on the 7th day of the following 
February. Shortly after this, her surviving husband returned to 
his farm in Center Township, where he has since resided. He is 
a member of the Presbvterian Church and a Republican in poli- 
tics. He owns, in all, 120 acres of land, eightv of which are in Cen- 
ter Township and forty in Ripley Township. His home farm con- 
tains a good residence and is in other respect substantiallv improved- 


Samuel J. Bell, of Center Township, was born where he 
now lives, October ii, 1S39. ^^^ parents, John and Margaret Bell, 
were natives of Kentucky and North Carolina, respectiveh', and 
are both deceased. His father was the son of Hugh Bell, and 
his mother was the daughter of John Kennedy. He was reared 
upon his birthplace where he continued until his marriage which 
occurred April 17, 1862. His wife was Mary C. Walker, and 
was born in Jackson Township, being the daughter of Aaron and 
Sarah Walker. From the time of their marriage Mr. and Mrs. 
Bell resided upon a farm in Center Township, until 1877, when 
the}^ moved to Indianapolis. There our subject was engaged in 
the lumber business two years, after which he was similarl}' en- 
gaged in Venice, 111., eighteen months, and three and one-half 
years in St. Louis, and about fourteen months in Memphis, Tenn. 
He returned to Rusk County in June, 1884, and has since been a 
farmer and tile and brick manufacturer of Center Township. He 
has had eight children: Sophia, Julius E., Corena J., Ida I., Mag- 
gie P., Walter J., Josephine and Leroy, of whom Sophia, Corena J., 
and Walter J., are deceased. Mr. Bell is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church as is also his wife. In politics, Mr. Bell is a Prohibi- 
tionist. He owns 100 acres of land, four-fifths of which is in 

James Billings, an old citizen of Center Township, was born 
in Kent County, Del., October 27, 1816, being the son of James 
and Nellie (Bostic) Billings, who were also natives of Delaware, the 
former of English descent and the latter of English-American de- 
scent. His father was the son of Everett Billings, who was a na- 
tive of England. His mother was the daughter of Shadrich Bostic. 
He was reared upon a farm in his native county, and at twenty 
years of age he came westward to Butler County, Ohio, where he 
resided for a period of eighteen years. While there, he was 
chieflv employed at chopping wood and making rails. In October, 
1854, he came to Rush County, a resident of which he has been 
ever since. He was married in Union Township, this count}', to 
Miss Mar}' Ann Lord December 2, 1856. She is also a native of 
Kent Count}', Del., born May 16, 1823, being the daughter of 
Andrew and Letitia (Reed) Lord, both of whom were also natives 
of Kent County, Del., the former of English and German descent, 
and the latter of Scotch descent. Her father was the son of Henry 
and Jennie Lord, and her mother was the daughter of Ebenezer and 
Sarah Reed. Mr. and Mrs. Billings entered upon their married 
life in Union Township. In October, 1872, they removed to Center 
Township, and they have ever since occupied their present home. 
Thev have had two children: Martha E., born December 12, 1S57; 



married to Terrence McMannis January 4, 1877; she died May 5, 
1S80, leaving one child., Clara G., born December 31, 1877; their 
second child is Henry L. C, who was born October 24, i860, and 
is now at home with his parents. Mrs. Billings is a member of the 
Christian Church. In politics, Mr. Billings is an ardent Repub- 
lican. He owns ninety acres of land, nearly all of which is in cul- 

John Bitner, one of Rush County's most prosperous and sub- 
stantial farmers, was born in Faj^ette County, Ind., January 3, 1S29. 
He is the son of Hiram and Lydia (Low) Bitner, both of whom 
were natives of East Tennessee, of German descent. His par- 
ents came to Rush County before he was quite a year old and 
settled in Center Township, where he was reared upon a farm. 
He was married October 30, 1848, to Miss Judah Windsor, who 
was born in Grayson County, Va., August 6, 1827, being the 
daughter of Amos and Mary M. (McDaniel) Windsor, both of 
whom were natives of Surr\' County, N. C. Ever since their mar- 
riage Mr. and Mrs. Bitner have resided upon a farm in Center 
Township, and with the exception of one year they have occupied 
their present home. They have had born to them thirteen chil- 
dren as follows: Amos J., born August 28, 1849, died December 17, 
1849; Amanda, born April 27, 1S51, died April 17, 1863: Stephen, 
born September 14, 1853, died May 30, 1862; Hiram, born April 
8, 1856, died April 20, 1S63; Albert, born December 5, 1857, 
died April 11, 1863; Henry, born January 21, i860, died April 16, 
1863; Genias, born November 2, i86i,died iVpril 8, 1863; John J., 
born July 12, 1864; Laura I., born August i, 1866; Adda and 
Ida (twins), born November 26, 1868; Ira L., born July 8, 1871, 
died December 22, 1883; LuraJ., born January 19, 1874, died July 
14, 1875. Mr. and Mrs. Bitner are members of the Christian 
Church. In politics Mr. Bitner is a Democrat. He owns 186 }i 
acres of excellent land, about 120 of which is in cultivation. His 
farm contains a good residence and one of the largest and best 
barns in Rush County. Mr. Bitner ranks among the well-to-do 
and substantial farmers of his township, and he and his wife are 
among its worth)- and honored citizens. Mr. Bitner's portrait will 
be found on another page. 

James Bowles, a worthy and honored citizen of Center Town- 
ship, was born in Harrison County, Kj-., August 14, 1807. He was 
the son of Robert and Elizabeth Bowles, who were natives of Vir- 
ginia and Ohio, respectively. He was reared on a farm in his native 
county, and was married there in September, 1827. The lady that 
became his wife was Sallie Ann Smith, who also was a native of 
Harrison County, Ky., born September 19, 1809, being the daughter 


of Paul and Christena (Jaquish) Smith. In 1835, Mr. and Mrs. 
Bowles came to Rush County and located upon a farm in Anderson 
Township, just east of Milroy, and the farm now owned bv John 
Jackman. In the fall of 1837, they removed to Union Township, 
and two 3'ears later they removed to Washington Township. In 
1S52, they removed to Center Township, in which our subject has 
resided ever since. He has given his whole attention to farming 
and trading. His efforts were attended with liberal returns, and at 
one time he was the owner of i,oSo acres of Rush Countv's best 
land. His wife died June 27, 1S86. Mr. Bowles is the father of 
seven children: Paul, Christena, Joseph, Thomas J., Marv Ann, 
James H., and Amanda J., of whom Paul, Christena and Maiy Ann 
are deceased. In politics, Mr. Bowles is an uncompromising Re- 

Daxiel T. Carter, of Center Township, was born in Fleming 
Count}', Ky., February 20, 1814, being the son of Henry and IMary 
(Green) Carter, the former of whom was born in Culpepper 
County, Va., in about 1776, and the latter was born in Virginia in 
about 1791. He was married in his native country to Miss Ellen B. 
Fitch, on the 30th day of November, 1843. She was the daugh- 
ter of Henry and Matilda Fitch, the former of w'hom was born in 
Kentucky, September 13, 1794, and died November 14, 1S74; the 
latter was born in Kentucky, December 27, i799) ^nd died in 
August, 1864. In 1845, Mr. Carter moved hisfamil3'to Kushville, 
traveling by stage from Cincinnati, having but $5-°o ^^ his posses- 
sion. His first work was in the harvest field at 62 cents per day, 
and he afterward assisted in the erection of many buildings in 
Rushville. Latter on, he rented a farm, and by hard work saved 
$4,000, with which he purchased a farm in Union Township. He 
is now the owner of a splendid farm in Center Township, all of 
which is due to his personal economy and industry. He and wife have 
had seven children as follow's: Mary I., born September 2, 1845; 
Robert B., born January 2, 1847, died October 28, 1S69; Henry 
F., born March 28, 1849; James M., born November 2, 1851; 
Martha E., born January 14, 1854; Alvin, born September 17, 
i860 and Charles M., born April 25, 1871. Mr. Carter's father 
was a soldier under General Anthony Wayne and died about i860. 
His mother died about 1856. In politics he is a Republican. He 
is a self-made man and a good citizen. 

Martha A. Chandler, of Center Township, was born in 
Bourbon County, K}\, October 12, 1835, being the daughter of 
Aaron and Ann Barnes, both of whom were also natives of Bour- 
bon County, Ky. Her father was the son of Brinsle}' and Maiy 
Barnes, and her mother was the daughter of John and Martha 


Laughlin. Before she was two years old her parents came to 
Rush County, and settled in Noble Township, where she grew up 
to womanhood, and where, on the 19th da}^ of February, 1S60, 
she was married to John G. Chandler. He was born in Harrison 
County, Ky., September 17, 1824, being the son of James and 
Elizabeth Chandler. He was married to Irene E. Welborn, in 
September, 1855. She bore to him two children: Ilola Ma}' and 
Walter, both of whom are deceased. Mrs. Irene Chandler died 
Ma}' 2, 1S58. The subject of this sketch is the mother of three 
daughters, as follows: Carrie A., born February 2, 1S61, mar- 
ried to Turner Hudelson, in May, 1S85; Lizzie K., born June 12, 
1862, married to Horace Atkins, in September, 1880; and Mary M., 
born November 22, 1864, married to Arthur Hinshaw, April 7, 
1S87. The husband of Mrs. Chandler died November 26, 1871. 
She is a member of the Christian Church. She owns eighty acres 
of land, nearly all in cultivation. 

Mrs. Catharine Clark, of Center Township, was born in 
Fayette County, Ind., October i, 1825, being the daughter of 
Stephen and EHzabeth (Roysdon) Wandel, who were natives of 
Seneca County, N. Y., and Ashe County, N. C, respectively, the 
former being Ijorn July 30, 1797, and the latter being born January 
II, 1802. He died December 16, 1S54, '^"'^ ^^^ '^^'^^ September 
20, 1849. Her paternal grandparents were George and Sarah 
Wandel, and her maternal grandparents were Nathan and- Nancy 
Roysdon, who were natives of North Carolina. When she was 
nine years old her parents removed to Rush County, and settled 
upon the farm where Mrs. Clark now resides, her father having 
entered the land from the government. She grew up to woman- 
hood, at the home of her parents, and was married to Wiley Clark, 
July 21, 1847. He was born in Wilkes County, N. C, December 
25, 1820, being the son of Thomas and Elizabeth (McBride) 
Clark, who were natives of Maryland and North Carolina respec- 
tively. His father was the son of John T. and Barbara Clark. 
Mr. Wiley Clark was a farmer by occupation, which pursuit he 
followed in Center Township, until the time of his death, which oc- 
curred January 24, 1S80. He was a Democrat in politics and was 
a member of the Christian Church. Mrs. Clark's parents came to 
Wayne Count}', Ind., in 181 5, whence, after a five years' residence 
they entered land in Center Township, where both spent the rest 
of their lives. Her grandparents, George and Sarah Wandel, set- 
tled in Franklin County, Ind.; the former was born in May, 1770, 
and died February 11, 1817; the latter was born March 14, i777j 
and died May 27, 1845. Mrs. Clark is the mother of seven child- 
ren — only three of whom are living. Their names and ages are 


Amanda F., born May 13, 1S48, died May 30, 1883; Stephen A., 
born January 12, 1852; Albert N., born March 4, 1S56, died April 
27, 1857; John L., born July 20, i860; George B., born June 25, 
1864, and two sons that died in infancy, unnamed. Mrs. Clark is a 
member of the Christian Church. She has a farm of eighty-three 
acres and a comfortable home, where she resides in a pleasant way. 
October 19, 1871, Amanda F. was married to Samuel Cohee, and 
became the mother of three children: Bertie N., Wiley E. and 
Marple P., of whom onty the oldest is living. Stephen A. was 
married October 26, 1871, to Orpha Bowen, by whom he has one 
child, Pearl I., born April 29, 1878; John L. w^as married Septem- 
ber 13, 1883, to Mary C. Bitner, by whom he has two children: 
Alta Doy, born March 8, 1885, and" Bertha E., born March 4, 1887. 
George B. was married September 16, 1886, to Ida J. Bitner, by 
whom he has one child: Emery L. 

Dr. J. C. Dillon, a prominent physician of Rush County, is a 
native of the township in which he resides, having been born in the 
house he now occupies, June 27, 1845, being the son of Dr. A. C. 
Dillon, who was one among the earlj' practitioners of the county, 
and who practiced his profession in this county for a period of 
thirty-five years. He was reared upon the old homestead. He 
received in the common school a good knowledge of the ordinary 
branches of learning, and later on he was a student in De Pauw 
University for some time. Early in life he resolved to fit himself 
for the medical profession and studied for some time under his 
father. During the winter of 1866-67, he took a course of lectures 
in the Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, and took his second 
course during the winter of 1869-70, graduating in March, 1869. 
He returned to his home in Center Township, and entered upon his 
professional labors in connection with his father. He soon won for 
himself an extensive practice, which he has ever since been able to 
hold. With the exception of one year, during which he was lo- 
cated in Kokomo, his professional labors have been entirely per- 
formed in Rush County. His marriage to Mary J. Florea occurred 
in October, 1S68. They are the parents of an only son, whose 
name is Otto P. He was born April i, 1870. In addition to a 
common school education, he was a student at Notre Dame three 
years and at Butler University two years. He is now a student at 
medicine, having entered upon its study with his father in Septem- 
ber, 1877. In order to keep well up with the latest advancements 
in the medical science, Dr. Dillon continues to devote himself to 
the study of his profession and scarcely a year passes but what 
some part of it is spent in some good medical college. He is, 
therefore, not only an alumnus of the Ohio Medical College, but 


also a physician whose learning has been gathered in several of 
the best medical colleges in the country. While his practice ex- 
tends to every branch of the profession, he makes a specialty of the 
diseases of the throat and nose. He is a skilled practitioner and 
has a rank among the leading physicians of Rush County. 

Andrew B. English, one of Rush County's prominent citi- 
zens and well-to-do farmers, was born in Abbeville District, South 
Carolina, June 24, 1827. He was the son of Flugh P. and Mary 
A. (Armstrong) English, both of whom were also natives Abbeville 
District, S. C, and both were of Scotch-Irish descent. His father 
was the son of Andrew and Martha (Porter) English, and was 
born October 30, 1803. His parents were also natives of Abbe- 
ville District, S. C. When he was five years old, or late in 1832, 
his parents emigrated to Preble Count}', Ohio, where tliey arrived 
in December, 1832. Three years later they continued westward 
to Indiana, and coming to Rush Count}', settled upon a tract of land 
in Center Township, where the father and mother spent the rest of 
their lives, the former dying January 10, 1850, and the latter April 
9, 1S52. The subject of this sketch spent his early hfe upon the 
old home place, assisting to clear and cultivate the ground in sum- 
mer, and attending the district school in winter. While his educa- 
tion was confined to the common branches, it was such as to fit 
him for the practical affairs of domestic life. Through observation 
and reading he has somewhat mitigated the lack of early training, 
and he is now recognized as a well-informed man. He was united 
in marriage to Miss Ellen M. Hudelson, November 29, 1851. She 
was born in Center Township, this county, November 10, 1828, be- 
ing the daughter of John M. and Matilda Hudelson, a more exten- 
sive mention of whom appears elsewhere in this work. Ever since 
their marriage Mr. and Mrs. English have continued to occupy the 
old English homestead, where the former has dedicated his whole 
attention to agricultural pursuits. He now possesses a rank among 
the prosperous farmers of the county. Mr. and Mrs. English are 
devoted members of the United Presbyterian Church. In politics, 
Mr. English is a pronounced Republican. He takes a lively inter- 
est in the success of his partv, and will use every reasonable effort 
to promote its welfare. He has been elected to the office of As- 
sessor in his township three times, and is the present incumbent. 
He served as a member of the Board of County Commissioners 
from September, 1879, to September, 1882, and in that capacity he 
made an able and efficient officer. He owns 113 acres of land 
about ninetv of which is in cultivation. 

Cyrus Florea, who has resided in Center Township for the 
past fifty years, was born in Adams County, Ohio, June 20, 1819, 


being the son of Joshua and Mar}^ Florea, with whom he came to 
Rush County in 1837. The famih' settled in Center Township, 
where Cyrus continued with his parents until his marriage, which 
occurred January 13, 1842. The lady who became his wife was 
Almira Keever, who was born in Clarke County, Ohio, August 18, 
1822, being the daughter of Henry and Rhoda Keever, both of 
whom were natives of Ohio. She came with her parents to Rush 
County in 1830, and this has ever since been her home. Shortly 
after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Florea settled upon the farm 
they now occupy, which has been their home ever since. The life 
occupation of Mr. Florea has been farming, and in this connection 
his eiforts have been liberally rewarded. He at one time owned 
about 600 acres of land. This has been reduced by giving his 
children comfortable homes, but he is still the owner of a farm of 
100 acres, which is in a good state of improvement and cultivation. 
He and wife are the parents of six children, two of whom are de- 
ceased. Those living are: Orange T., Marj^ J., Joshua E. ^nd 
FlorellaA. Those deceased are: Sarah E. and Dale. Mrs. Florea 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In politics, Mr. 
Florea endorses the principles of the Union Labor Party. He has 
held the office of Justice of the Peace four j-ears. He is one of the 
well-to-do and substantial men of his township. 

JosiAH Florea, farmer of Center Township, was born in 
Adams County, Ohio, October 30, 1S23, being the son of Joshua and 
Mary (Spurgeon) Florea, and a twin brother of Joseph S. Florea, 
of Center Township, whose history appears below in this work. 
His father and mother were natives of Maryland and Kentucky, 
respectively; the former, who was the son of Albert Florea, was 
chiefly of German descent, and the latter, who was the daughter 
of John Spurgeon, was of English descent. When he was four- 
teen 3'ears old, or in October, 1837, his parents came to Rush 
County, and settled upon a tract of land in the southwest part of 
Center Township, and the farm now occupied by Joseph S. Florea. 
There our subject spent his 3'outh assisting to clear and cultivate 
the farm. He was married at the age of twenty-three, or Febru- 
ary 26, 1S46, when Miss Martha Price became his wife. She was 
born in Center Township, this county, March 30, 1829, being the 
daughter of Jonah H. and Susannah (Burton) Price, the former of 
whom was born in Clarke County, Ohio, being the son of David 
and Sarah Price, and the latter, who was the daughter of Thomas 
and Mary Burton, was born in Virginia. Shortly after their mar- 
riage, Mr. and Mrs. Florea located upon the farm they now oc- 
cup3', where Mr. Florea has ever since pursued the avocation of a 
farmer. His home farm in this county contains 121 acres, about 


loo of which are in a good state of cultivation. It contains a good 
residence and is in other respects well improved. Besides this he 
is the owner of 120 acres of first-class land in Howard County, 
this state. He and wife are the parents of eleven children, as fol- 
lows: Sarah M., Louisa, Mary F., Lj'dia E., Martha S., Joseph A., 
Vilena, Isabell, John C, William O. and Bertha L., all of whom 
are living except William, who died in childhood. Mr. and Mrs. 
Florea are members of the Baptist Church. In politics, Mr. 
Florea endorses the principles of the Union Labor party. 

Joseph S. Florea, an old and honored citizen of Center Town- 
ship, was born in Adams County, Ohio, October 30, 1823, being 
the son of Joshua and Mary (Spurgeon) Florea, and a twin brother 
of Josiah Florea, of Center Township. When he was fourteen 
years old, his parents came to Rush County, and settled upon the 
farm he now occupies in Center Township. There his youth was 
spent assisting to clear and cultivate the farm. He was married 
April 10, 1844, to Miss Dolly Keever, who was born in Clarke 
County, Ohio, September 6, 1824, being the daughter of Henry 
and Rhoda (Isham) Keever. The latter was the daughter of 
George J. Isham, who served as a Drum-Major under Washing- 
ton during the Revolutionary War. Mr. and Mrs. Florea spent 
the first year after their marriage with the parents of the former. 
They then removed to Washington Township. A year later they 
removed to Union Township, where Mr. Florea became a sub- 
stantial and prosperous farmer. In 186S he and wife returned to 
the old homestead in Center Township, where they have since 
resided. They are the parents of nine children — two of whom 
are deceased. Those living are: Maria, Almira, Patrick H., 
Rosa E., Mary A., OHve D. and Sarah E. Those dead are: 
Joshua and Emity R. Mr. and Mrs. Florea are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The former is a member of the 
Masonic Lodge, having joined it more than twenty-five years ago. 
While not a radical partisan, his political affiliations have generally 
been with the Democratic party. While a resident of Union Town- 
ship he served as Trustee seven j-ears. In i860 he was elected a 
member of the Board of County Commissioners, and served in a 
creditable manner for nearly four years. He has frequently been 
urged to accept other positions of honor and trust, but has pre- 
ferred the quietude of domestic life. 

Brice D. Fort, farmer of Center Township, was born on a 
a farm three miles north of Knightstown, Henry County, April 10, 
1844. He was the son of Benjamin and Eliza (Laten) Fort, who 
were natives of Virginia, and Maryland respectively. His boyhood 
and early youth were spent upon the old homestead where he was 


born. He received in the district school an ordinary common 
school education. At eighteen years of age he began to learn the 
blacksmith's trade in Knightstown under the instruction of John D. 
Cameron. He became the partner of Mr. Cameron at the end of 
eighteen months and thev continued to operate a shop together for 
a period of nine years. Mr. Fort then purchased the interest of 
Mr. Cameron and continued alone for two years longer when he 
sold out. In the meantime he was united in marriage August 4, 
1870, to Miss Alice A. Woods, daughter of Joseph and Elsie 
(Pearson) Woods, the former of whom was born in Wayne 
County, Ind. In about 1875 Mr. and Mrs. Fort removed from 
Knightstown to Center Township, this county, in which they have 
ever since resided. They have occupied their present home since 
1876. The whole attention of Mr. Fort since coming to this coun- 
ty' has been given to farming, and he now has a rank among the 
prosperous and well-to-do farmers of Center Township. He and 
w' ife are the parents of three children as follows : Charles V., Min- 
nie I. and Harry B., aU of whom are living. Mr. and Mrs. Fort 
and daughter Minnie, are members of the Friends' Church. In 
the fall of 1864 Mr. Fort entered the service of the Union army in 
Companj- A, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Indiana Regiment, with 
which he served in the capacity of Second Sergeant for one hun- 
dred davs when his term of service expired. He is a member of 
the Masonic Fraternity, the G. A. R., and in politics he is a Repub- 
lican. He owns a farm of 120 acres, about 100 of which are in a 
high state of cultivation. 

James H. Foxwortht, of Center Township, was born in 
Fleming Oounty, Ky., April 4, 181 7. He was the son of Samuel 
and Mary Ann (Calvert) Foxworthy, the former of whom was 
born in Virginia, being the son of William and Clarissa Foxworthy, 
and the latter was the daughter of Landon and Ann Wood Calvert. 
He was reared upon a farm in his native count}^ and continued 
with his parents until he became of age. For a number of vears 
thereafter he was engaged as a farm hand in Fleming and Mason 
counties, Ky. In the fall of 1S46, he came to Rush County, and 
during the following winter he taught public school in Center 
Township. In the fall of 1S47, he returned to Kentucky and was 
engaged as a teacher in Lewis County during the w^inter which 
followed. In the fall of 1S48, he went to St. Francis County, Ark., 
thence, in company with his uncle, Stephen Calvert, to New Or- 
leans. In the spring of 1S49, he returned northward to Fleming 
County, Kv., and a month or so later he again came to Rush 
Countv, in which he has chieflv resided ever since. He was mar- 
ried September 12, 1849, to Miss Cynthia A. Barrett, who w'as 


born in the State of Virginia, January 21, 1822, being the daughter 
of Rev. Samuel and Clarissa (^McCoinnias) Barrett, both of whom 
were also natives of Virginia, the former being the son of Edward 
and Esther Barrett, and the latter being the daughter of William 
and Dicy McCommas. Mr. and Mrs. Foxworthy entered upon 
their married life in Knightstown, and during the winter of 1S49 
and 1S50, Mr. Foxworthy taught school in Ripley Township. 
In the spring of 1852, they removed to their present home in Cen- 
ter Township, which they occupied ever since. The whole atten- 
tion of our subject since then has been given to agricultural 
pursuits, and in this connection his labors have been attended with 
a reasonable degree of success. He and wife have had two children: 
Mary F., now the wife of Robert T. Overman, of Knightstown, and 
Anna D., now the wife of Hon. Thomas M. Green, of Rushville. 
Mr. and Mrs. Foxworthy are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In her earlier life, Mrs. Foxworthy taught public school 
four terms — two of which were in Knightstown, and two in Rip- 
ley Township, this county. In politics, Mr. Foxworthy is a Re- 
publican. He has a farm of sixty acres, which is fitted up with a 
good residence and is otherwise substantially improved. He is an 
industrious and successful farmer. The grandmother of Mr. Fox- 
worthv, Mrs. Ann Wood Calvert, was a relative of Lord Balti- 

Washington Gilson, a prominent citizen of Center Township, 
was born in Rushville Township, March 6, 1829. He is the son 
of Andrew and Mary Gilson, who were both natives of Virginia. 
His bo^■hood was spent in his native township upon a farm. His 
father died of chqlera in 1832, after which he remained with his 
widowed mother until he was fifteen, when he went to live with his 
uncle, Thomas Moffett, also of Rushville Township. He was with 
him two years, and then went to live with his brother in Center 
Township, where he continued until his marriage, which occurred 
December 10, 1850. The lady that became his wife was Miss 
Mary J. Curry, who was born in Harrison County, Ky., September 
10, 1S26, being the daughter of James A. and Nancy Curry, who 
also were natives of Kentucky. Shortly after their marriage, Mr. and 
Mrs. Gilson located where they now reside in Center Township, 
where Mr. Gilson has ever sitice been engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. He owns a handsome farm of no acres, which is in a good 
state of improvement and cultivation. He and wife are the parents 
of two children, both living. Thev are Thomas L. and Mary B., 
both of whom are married. Mrs. Gilson is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. Mr. Gilson has never identified himself with any 
church, but is a firm believer in the principles of Christianity. In 


politics he is a Democrat. He has served his township as Justice 
of the Peace one term. 

James L. Hamilton, of Center Township, was born in Wash- 
ington Township, Rush County, June 27, 1823. He was the son 
of Robert and Rebecca Hamilton, the former of whom was born 
in Laurens County, S. C, October 9, 1797, and the latter was 
born in Wythe Count}', W. Va., April i, 1807. The}- were married 
in this county, September 12, 1822. The}' entered upon their 
married life upon a farm in Washington Township, where their son 
James L. Hamilton, was born. On Christmas day, 1S30, they re- 
moved to Center Township, and settled upon a farm, where James 
spent his boyhood and youth, and where his father and mother 
spent the rest of their lives. Robert Hamilton died January 16, 
1S79, and his wife survived him until October 5, 1S86. They were 
the parents of six children: James L., born June 27, 1823; W^ill- 
iam H., born November 18, 1824; Hugh, born November 11, 
1826, disappeared December 3, 186S; Polly, born January i, 1829; 
Andrew J., born January i, 1831, died November 14, 186S; and 
Francis M., born April 14, 1834, died June 8, ^883. The subject 
of this sketch was married to Eliza J. Reeves, May 24, 1S46. She 
was born May 6, 1830, and died August 23, 1864. In the latter 
part of May, 1865, Mr. Hamilton was married to Mrs. Anna 
Eliza Reeves, who was born February 4, 1839, ^'^'^ '^'^'^ J^h' ^' 
1865. The third marriage of Mr. Hamilton occurred February 

25, 1866, when Miss Mattie J. Fink became his wife. She w^as 
born in Adams County, Ohio, November 14, 1842. She was the 
daughter of James C. and Mary A. (Compton) Fink, who were 
natives of Huntingdon County, Pa., and Lexington, Va., respect- 
ivelv. Mr. Hamilton and his first wife had three children: Mary 
A. C, born September 2, 1847; Robert I., who was born July 26, 
1S50, and who is now the Superintendent of the Citv Schools at 
Huntington, Ind. : James L., born April 6, 1854, died December 
3, 1 88 1. Mr. Hamilton and his present wife have two children: 
Clement L. V., born May 8, 1867, and Benton Fink, born January 

26, 1873. In politics, Mr. Hamilton is a Democrat. He has re- 
sided during his life in Grant Countv, Ind., Wichita, Kan., and m 
Hannibal, Mo. He returned to Center Township, February i, 1885. 

Hon. John M. Hudelson, deceased, was one of those rugged 
pioneers of Rush County, who have left the impress of their 
character and energv upon their communities. He began life with 
this centurv having been born Januarv i, iSoo. The place of his 
nativity was Millersburg, Bourbon County, Ky., and his parents 
were John M. and Catharine (Irvin") Hudelson, both of whom were 
natives of Pennsylvania. He passed his youth and early manhood 


jn Kentuck}', and in the spring of 182S, located in the woods 
of Center Township, this county, where the remainder of his life 
was spent in usefulness and industry. He had visited this lo- 
calit}' in 1822, and entered the land that afterward became his 
home. Possessing a strong and splendid physique, he was enabled 
b_v unceasing toil and frugality to gain a competence that was more 
than enough to soften the asperities of declining years, and smooth 
the pathway to the tomb. In 1824, Matilda Hinds, also a nati\-e of 
Kentucky, became his wife. She bore him these five children: 
Francis I., Sarah J., Margaret E., Mary A. and Robert A. She 
departed this life in 1837, havmg been a devoted wife and mother 
and a consistent Christian. The second wife was Ann Hildelson, 
who became such in 1838. By her Mr. Hudelson was the father 
of two children, Lizzie and Henry. He was alwavs foremost in 
his advocacy of whatever was for the good of society, and in him 
the public schools found an ardent supporter. In early life he was 
a Whig but with the downfall of that, he espoused the cause of the 
Republican party. He was Justice of the Peace, in Center Town- 
ship, for two terms, having been the first to fill that position in the 
township. In addition to this he served one term as Associate 
Judge of the county, under the old judiciary system, and was for 
three terms a member of the State Legislature. His death oc- 
curred October 18, 1S79, an event that caused much gloom throuo-h- 
out the community in which he had for more than fift}' 3-ears been 
an honored and respected citizen. His portrait is presented with 
this volume as a fitting representative of those earlv settlers who 
contributed so largely to raise Rush County to its present prosperitv. 
Robert A. Hudelson, whose portrait appears elsewhere, isa 
prominent farmer of Center Township and a native of the same 
township, born March 3, 1834. He was the son of John M. and 
Matilda (Hinds) Hudelson, both of whom were natives of Ken- 
tucky, and the former of Millersburg, Bourbon Co., where he was 
born January i, 1800. The latter was born in 1805. A sketch 
of the parents appears above. The subject of this sketch was reared 
upon the old Hudelson homestead in Center Township. He re- 
ceived in the district school a good common school education and 
one that enabled him to teach public school, which he did durinf 
four winters, or the winters included between the years 1861 and 
1865. He was married December 29, 1864, to Nanc}- E. Barnes, 
who was born in Noble Township, this country March 9, 1839, 
being the daughter of Aaron and Ann (Laughhn) Barnes who 
were natives of Kentucky. Shortly after their marriage Mr. and 
Mrs. Hudelson settled upon the farm our subject now occupies, 
where they continued to enjoy life together, until their union was 


broken by the death of Mrs. Hudelson, on the i6th da}' of March, 
1S86. Mr. Hudelson is the father of six children: Ruby M., born 
November 22, 1865, died December 24, 1871; Anna Bruce, bom 
March 7, 1868; Ella Kate, born June 12, 1870; Lurena, born 
February 15, 1873; Frank M., bornjanuary 22, 1878, and Bessie 
Barnes, born December 24, 1880. Mr. Hudelson is a member of 
the United Presbyterian Church, and a Republican in politics. He 
has served his township as Justice of the Peace one term and has 
also served as a member of the Board of County Commissioners 
one term. He owns 190 acres of first class land, about 140 of 
which are in cultivation. His farm is fitted up with good buildings 
and is desirably located. He also possesses an interest in the old 
home place which amounts to about thirty acres. 

Benjamin F. Hudelson, a well-to-do farmer and prominent 
citizen of Center Township, was born in Spiceland Township, Henry 
Co., January 28, 1848. He was the son of William and Lucinda 
Hudelson, the former a native of Nicholas County, Ky., and the 
latter a native of Henry Counter, this state. He was reared upon 
a farm in his native county, and received in the district school, a 
good common school education. At twenty years of age he took 
up the avocation of a teacher, which furnished his winter's emplov- 
ment for a period of six years. During the summer season, he 
worked upon a farm. He was married at the age of twent^'-four, 
or October 31, 1872, to Miss Mary E. Allen, who was born in 
Madison, Jefferson County, Ind., Juhr 31, 1849, being the daugh- 
ter of Eli and Eleanor Allen who were natives of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Hudelson entered upon their 
married life upon a farm in Center Township. Two years later, 
they removed to Henr}^ Count}-, where they resided upon a farm 
until in March, 1885, when they returned to Center Township and set- 
tled where they now live. The attention of Mr. Hudelson is given 
to farming though he has in connection with this pursuit accom- 
modated the public to a considerable extent in the capacity of an 
insurance agent. He and wife are the parents of four chil- 
dren as follows: Fred E., born September 17, 1S73; Clara E., 
born February 22, 1876; Flo}^ B., born December 2, 187S, and 
Allen F., bornjanuary 3, 1884, died September 4, 1885. In poli- 
tics, Mr. Hudelson is an ardent Republican. While not a political 
Prohibitionist, he is a strict temperance man and eschews the use of 
tobacco and intoxicants in every form. He owns a farm of 164 
acres, about 140 of which are in cultivation. His convictions of 
right, though positive, are honest and he does not believe in con- 
cealing the truth of whatever character it may be. He was elected 
to the ofRce of Justice of the Peace in April, 18S6, which reflects 


i' f!'^. 



very creditably upon his standing in the township, owing to the fact 
that it is strongly Democratic. 

Jonathan L. Lord, a prominent citizen of Center Township, 
was born in the State of Delaware, November 9, 1830, being the 
son of Andrew and Letitia (Reed) Lord, both of whom were also na- 
tives of Delaware, and both of English descent. His father died 
in Delaware. When he was about four years old, his mother re- 
moved to the State of Ohio, and settled in Belmont County, oppo- 
site Wheeling, W. Va. Some two or three years later she removed 
to Butler County, Ohio, and when he was about seven years old, 
his mother came to Rush County, and settled in Union Township. 
In 1842 the family emigrated to Clarke County, Mo., but not be- 
ing pleased with the country, they returned almost immediately to 
Rush County, and again settled in Union Township. A year later 
they removed to Fa3'ette County, but returned to Rush County in 
a few years and settled in Noble Township. Later on they re- 
turned to Union Township, where our subject continued with his 
widowed mother until his marriage, which occurred February 25, 
1857. The lady that became his wife was Miss Clara A. Scruggs, 
who was born in Fayette County, Ind., March 8, 1840, being the 
daughter of William and Magdalene (Esterly) Scruggs. Imme- 
diately after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Lord located in Center 
Township, residents of which they have been ever since. The life 
occupation of Mr. Lord has been farming, and in this connection he 
has been fairly successful. He and wife are members of the 
Christian Church. In politics, Mr. Lord is a Republican. He 
owns a handsome farm of 110 acres, which is fitted up with a 
handsome residence, and which is a very desirable location. 

Charles H. Lyons, an industrious young farmer of Center 
Township, was born in Noble Township, this county, August 11, 
1853, being the son of Elijah and Amanda (Berkley) Lyons, both 
of whom were also natives of Noble Township, the former being 
the son of John W. and Amanda Lyons, and the latter being 
the daughter of John Berkley. His grandparents were, all early 
settlers of Rush County. He was reared upon a farm in his na- 
tive township, working with his father until his marriage. Florence 
A. Downey, daughter of Harrison and Ellen Downey, became his 
wife January 16, 1881. She is also a native of Noble Township, 
born October 14, 18=^1. Her father and mother are natives of 
Virginia and Ohio, respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Lyons entered upon 
their married life where they now live, where the former has ever 
since pursued the avocation of a farmer. He owns a first-class 
farm of 100 acres, about three-fourths of which is in a fine 


State of cultivation. He and wife are the parents of two children: 
Elsie and Nellie, both of whom are living. 

John W. Martin, merchant and grocer of Mays, was born in 
Chester County, Pa., February 16, 1837. He was the son of Major 
Benjamin L. and Sarah (Christmanj Martin, who were also na- 
tives of Chester Count}-, Pa. His father served as a Major during 
the late war. He was the son of John and Ruth Ann (Stevenson) 
Martin, who also were natives of Pennsylvania. When he was 
two years old his parents settled in Wavne County, this State, 
Avhere our subject was reared and where his parents still reside. 
The father, B. L. Martin, served as Auditor of Wayne County, 
from 1S53 to 1S61, and during the greater part of that time our sub- 
ject was his deputy. In the meantime he had provided himself 
with a collegiate education, having spent six years in Whitewater 
College of Centerville. In 1861 he resigned the deputy auditor- 
ship to accept the position as deputy Secretary of State under 
Judge William A. Peelle. At the end of two years he entered the 
service of the Union Army and served in a creditable manner until 
the close of the war. On retiring from the service, he returned 
home and he was married in Aurora, this State, to Jennie J. Jones 
in the fall of 1866. She was born in Aurora, Ind., being the daugh- 
ter of Jonathan and Sophia Jones. Shortlv after his marriage Air. 
Martin went to Grenada, Miss., where he was engaged in mer- 
chandising two years. He then returned to Wa^-ne County; Ind., 
and two 3'ears later he engaged in mercantile pursuits in Chester 
and Bethel, both of Wayne County. In about 1S76 he entered the 
employ of the Maddux Bros, of Cincinnati as traveling salesman, 
in which capacity he continued three }-ears. He then came to Rush 
County and engaged in merchandising in Raleigh, and also farm- 
ing in the vicinity of that place. He continued in this way six 
years. By this time his health was serious!}- impaired and he re- 
tired from business and spent one 3-ear recruiting it. February i, 
1887, he opened a general store in Ma}-s, this county, to which his 
attention is now directed. He is the father of four children, Stella 
A., Inez S., Alice Blanche and Jessie, all living. Mrs. Martin is 
a member of the Presb^■terian Church. Mr. Martin is a member of 
the Masonic fraternitv and a Republican in politics. While a resi- 
dent of Wayne County he served as Justice of the Peace one term. 
He is an intelligent man with good business qualifications and a 
first class citizen. His father is also an ardent Republican and has 
represented Wajme County, this State, two terms in the State Legis- 

Elder Aaron H. Morris, Superintendent of the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home, of Knightstown, is a native of Butler County, 


Ohio, born March 13, 1S46, being the son of John and Sarah (Rose) 
Morris, who were natives of Butler County, Ohio, and Union 
County, Ind., respectively. He was less than five years'old when 
the hand of Death had deprived him of both father and mother, 
and at ten j-ears of age he entered the home of his grandparents, 
Joseph and Kezia Morris, who resided in Oxford, Ohio. As soon 
as he became old enough he entered upon a course in the Oxford 
High School, and graduated from that institution at about sixteen 
years of age. In January-, 1S63, he entered upon a classical course 
in Miami Universitv, and attended at that time one term. In June, 
1S63, he entered the service of the Union Army in Company K, 
Eighty-Sixth Ohio Volunteers, with which he served until the 14th 
of February, 1S64, when his term of service expired. On the ist 
day of Ma}', 1864, he entered Company I, 167th Ohio Regiment, 
and served 100 davs, when he received an honorable dis- 
charge. He participated in a number of engagements, in all of 
which he discharged his duties in a manner becoming a lo\-al sol- 
dier. On retiring from the service, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, 
and entered the Freshman Class of Miami University. There he 
pursued his classical studies for a period of four years, and gradu- 
ated with honors in July, 1868. In the fall of that year he took 
the position of High School Principal at Connersville, this State. 
In the fall of 1S69 he took charge of an academy in Montgomery 
Countv, Ind., a position he retained one year. He then took charge 
of an academic school at Ladoga, of that count}', where he re- 
mained between two and three years, when he removed to Wave- 
land, Montgomery County, and there became the pastor of the 
Christian Church. Three years later, or in January, 1875, he took 
charge of the Christian denomination at Noblesville, where he re- 
mained five years. This was followed by a one-year's pastorate at 
Tipton, after which he returned to Noblesville, and during 
the four years which followed, in connection with his min- 
isterial work, he performed the duties of County Superintend- 
ent of Hamilton County, to which office he was twice elected- 
In June, 1SS5, he retired from that office, and in August following, 
the Board of Trustees elected him Superintendent of the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home, of Knightstown. Notwithstanding the grave 
responsibility imposed by this position, Mr. Morris has discharged 
his duties in a manner which reflects credit both to himself and the 
State. 'l"he Home is a magnificent structure, and one of the truly 
great institutions of the State, and the history of its management 
for the past few years is an eulogy upon all concerned. Our sub- 
ject was married September 9, 1869, to Miss Anna A. Harlan, who 
was born in Union County, Ind., November 25, 1847, being the 


daughter of George and Malinda (Stevens) Harlan. Their mar- 
riage has resulted in the birth of five children: John H., George G., 
JEdith, Clifford and Harris P. S., all of whom are living. Mr. Mor- 
ris is a member of the I. O. O. F. and G. A. R. lodges, and has 
reached the Knight Templar's degree in Masonrj'. His political 
affiliations have always been with the Democratic party. 

Philip D. Parker, who for more than fift\r years has been a 
resident of Center Township, and who is one of the substantial and 
prominent farmers of Rush Countj^, was born in Belmont County, 
Ohio, April 21, 1818. He was the son of Benajah and Grace 
Parker, the former of whom was born in Northampton Count}-, 
IST. C, of English and Welsh descent, and the latter was born in 
Augusta County, Ga., of English and Irish descent. His father 
and mother came with their respective parents to Belmont Count}', 
Ohio, and there they became acquainted and were married in the 
3'ear 1809. His paternal grandparents were Jacob and Rhoda 
Parker, who were natives of England and Wales, respectively. His 
grandfather, Jacob Parker, in his youth was apprenticed to a ship 
carpenter, but having no taste for that trade, he ran away, and 
putting his effects in a small wooden chest, he boarded a vessel 
and came to America, whither he arrived in time to participate in 
gun-boat building during the Revolutionary War, and thus loaned a 
helping hand to the striving colonists. He died in Belmont Countjr, 
Ohio, in about the year 1828. That same old wooden chest is still 
an heirloom in the familj-, and is now in possession of the subject 
•of this sketch. His wife, whose maiden name was Rhoda Draper, 
had preceded him, her death having occurred in about 1S22. The 
maternal grandparents of our subject were William and Rachel 
Patton, who were respectively natives of L-eland and England. 
When the subject of this sketch was four years' old, his parents 
removed to Jefferson County, Ohio, where his boj'hood was spent 
upon a farm. In 1836 he accompanied them to this State, and 
after a residence of a few months in the village of Raysville, Henry 
County, the familj' came to Rush Count)^ and settled upon a farm 
in the northern part of Center Township, and two miles southeast 
of Knightstown. There our subject spent the rest of his 3'outh 
and early manhood, assisting to clear and cultivate the farm. He 
has ever since continued to reside upon the same old homestead, 
Jiis occupation being that of a farmer. He was married September 
:ii, 1S51, to Miss Joanna Morris, who was born in Washington 
'Countj% this State, October 9, 1822. Her parents, Benoni and 
"Rebecca Morris, were both natives of North Carolina. The former 
Avas the son of Mordicai and Abigail Morris, and the latter was the 
^daughter of John and Jemima Trueblood. Mr. and Mrs. Parker 


are the parents of five children, Ella M., Theodore F., Benoni M., 
Sophia A. and Virginia W., all of whom are living except Ella M., 
who died in the sixteenth year of her age. Mr. and Mrs. Parker 
are members of the Friends' Church. In politics, Mr. Parker form- 
erly affiliated with the Whig part}', casting his first vote for Gen^ 
Harrison in 1S40. Since 1856 he has supported the principles of 
the Republican part}'. His farm contains 260 acres of excellent 
land, about 200 of Vvhich are in cultivation. It contains a handsome 
residence and good barn, and is one of the most desirable farms ir» 
Rush County. 

Theodore F. Parker, a prominent young farmer of Center 
Township, was born upon the Old Parker Homestead in that 
Township, November 21, 1856. He is the oldest son of Philip D. 
and Joanna Parker, a history of whom is given above. He was 
reared upon his father's farm, and at about twenty-two years of 
age he took up the avocation of a farmer for himself, and to this, 
pursuit his entire attention is now given. He was married Sep- 
tember 6, 1SS3, to Miss Roie C. Pickering, who was born in the 
village of Cadiz, Henry County, January 24, i860. She was the 
daughter of Marcus A. and Eliza M. Pickering, both of whom 
were also natives of Cadiz, Henry County. The former was the 
son of Jonas and Mary Pickering, and the latter was the daughter 
of William and Nancy Cooper. Mr. and Mrs. Parker are the pa- 
rents of one child: Morris, who was born December 25, 1884. 
Mr. and Mrs. Parker are members of the Friends' and Methodist 
Churches respectively. In politics, the former is a Republican. 

John F. Peck, a prominent school teacher of Center Township, 
was born in Hancock County, this State, March 17, 1856. He 
was the son of James and Minerva (Smith) Peck, who were na- 
tives of Connecticut and North Carolina, respectively, both of 
English descent. His father was a direct descendant of Captain 
Wadsworth, who concealed the charter of Connecticut in the oak, 
and his mother could trace her ancestral lineage back to Captain 
John Smith. His father was the son of Erastus and Mary (Lewis) 
Peck, and his mother was the daughter of John and Prudence 
Smith. When he was two years old his parents came to Rush. 
County, and settled in the village of Arlington, where the father 
worked at the trade of a carpenter, and also served as Justice of 
the Peace, and where our subject was raised. In 1875, the family- 
returned to Hancock County, and located in Carrollton, where our 
subject made his home with his parents until his marriage. At 
twenty years of age he took up the vocation of teacher, and 
this has furnished his winter's employment and the greater part of 
his summer's employment ever since. He has now taught for 


eleven consecutive winters, five of which were in Hancock County-, 
three in Shelby Count}-, and three in Rush Countv. He taught in 
the graded schools of Carrollton four years, during three of which 
he was principal of the school. He was married December 24, 
iSSi, to Miss Nannie B. Leonard, who is also a native of Han- 
cock County, born February 27, 1865. She was the daughter of 
Rufus B. and Harriet (Eaton) Leonard, who were natives of 
North Carolina and Indiana, respectiveh'. Her father was the son 
of John and Levina Leonard, and her mother was the daughter of 
William and Sarah Eaton. Our subject and wife are the parents 
of two children: Stella May, born November 16, 1882, and Ralph 
Waldo, born March 15, 1886. In politics, Mr. Peck is a Republi- 
can. In October, 1S87, Mr. Peck began the publication of an edu- 
cational monthlv, entitled The Little Messenger^ which is designed 
to be a children's paper and which now has a circulation of about 
1,000. He is a faithful worker in the school-room and he pos- 
sesses a rank among the best teachers of the count}-. 

William F. Reeves, a substantial farmer and prominent citi- 
zen of Center Township, was born in Brown County, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 4, 1827. His parents, Jabez and Nanc}- Reeves were also 
natives of the State of Ohio. When William was yet a child 
but tvip months old, his parents came to Rush County and located 
upon me farm he now occupies in Center Township, the father 
having entered the land from the government. The parents con- 
tinued upon the same place until the year 1861. In that year the}'' 
removed to Knightstown, Henry Co., where they still continue to 
reside. The father is now in his eighty-second year, and the 
mother in the eighty-third year of her age. They were married 
on the 26th day of February, 1824, and have therefore lived as 
husband and wife more than sixty-three years, and though aged 
as they are, both enjoy good health and bid fair to live for many 
years to come, to enjoy the fruits and blessings of a weU-spent life. 
The subject of this sketch was reared upon the old home '^lace, 
which he now owns himself, assisting to clear and cultivate the 
farm in summer and attending district school in winter. At the 
age of nineteen, he took up the avocation of a teacher, which fur- 
nished his winter's employment for about five years. Since then 
his undivided attention has been given to farming. He was mar- 
ried May 16, 1850, to Hannah M. Gilson, who was born within the 
present limits of Jackson Township, November 13, 1831, being the 
daughter of Andrew and Mary Gilson, both of whom were natives 
of Virginia. They were married in their native state and came to 
Rush County in about 1820. Here they both spent the rest of 
their lives, the father dying in 1832, and the mother in 1S41. 


Mr. and Mrs. Reeves have had nine children: Marshal T., New- 
ton J., Jefferson B., Chester D., Ollie F., Milton O., Isabell A., 
Girnie L. and Heber F., only four of whom are living. They are 
Marshal T., OUie F., Milton O. and Girnie L. Mr. and"' Mrs. 
Reeves are members of the Christian Church. In politics, Mr. 
Reeves is a Democrat. He has served his township in the ca- 
pacit}' of Trustee one term. He has also served as Justice of the 
Peace two full terms and was elected for a third term, but resigned 
before the term expired. He owns a fine farm of 185 acres where 
he lives, besides another farm of eighty acres in the same township. 
Their son, Jefferson B., was born September 24, 1855. He studied 
law and was admitted to the bar, at Columbus, Ind., where he 
soon won a prominent place in his profession. He was elected a 
member of the State Legislature in the fall of 1884, but died before 
the expiration of his term, his death occurring September i, 1S86. 

Abraham Rhodes, who has resided in Center Township for 
the past hfty-two 3'ears, was born in Bedford Countv, Pa., March 
20, 1810. He was the son of Jacob and Catharine Rhodes, who 
moved to Montgomery Count}-, Ohio, when he was but seven 
weeks old. He was reared upon a farm in Montgomery County, 
and was married there early in 1835. The lady who became his 
wife was Mary Stroup, who was also born in Pennsylvania. Her 
parents were George and Catharine Stroup. In May following 
his marriage, Mr. Rhodes came to Rush County, and settled upon 
the farm he now occupies. His wife died there February 7? 1884. 
He is the father of twelve children, seven of whom are living. 
Those living are: Catharine, John, Henr}- S., Mary Ann, Will- 
iam F., Nancy J. and Sarah M. And those dead are : Eli, Levina, 
Elizabeth M., Eliza E. and a girl that died in infancy unnamed. 
Mr. Rhodes is a member of the Presbyterian Church. In politics, 
he is a Democrat, casting his first vote for Andrew Jackson. Be- 
sides considerable property he has given to his children, he is the 
owner of a splendid farm of 220 acres, which contains a handsome 
residence, and which is in a good state of improvement and culti- 
vation. He is one of the county's old pioneers, and one of its most 
nighly respected citizens. 

Henry S. Rhodes, a native-born citizen of Center Township, 
was born December 13, 1S39, being the son of Abraham and Mary 
Rhodes, a history of whom appears elsewhere in this work. He 
was reared upon the old Rhodes homestead in his native township, 
and continued with his parents until he became of age. On the 
loth day of May, i860, he was married to Miss Mary A. Ruby, 
who is also a native of Center Township, born August 10, 1832, 
being the daughter of Jacob and Mary Ruby, who were natives of 


Bedford County, Pa. Mr. and Mrs. Rhodes entered upon their 
married hfe upon the farm they now occupy and there they have 
ever since continued to reside. The hfe occupation of Mr. Rhodes 
has been farming, and in this connection his efforts have been hber- 
ally rewarded. They have been the foster parents of three children: 
The lirst was WilHam A. Schaffer, who remained with them from 
the age of thirteen to the age of twenty-one, when Mr. Rhodes 
gave him a horse, saddle and bridle, suit of clothes and $300 in 
money. The second child was Ettie Eagle who remained with Mr. 
and Mrs. Rhodes, from the time she was five years old until she 
became of age. The third child was Elmer Roberts, who is a 
nephew of Mr. Rhodes. He has now reached the age of fifteen 
and his home has been made with Mr. and Mrs. Rhodes ever since 
he was seven months old. Mr. Rhodes and wife are members of 
the Christian Church. In politics, Mr. Rhodes is a Democrat. He 
has a farm of eightj^ acres which is in a good state of improvement 
and cultivation. 

Albert Rhodes, of the village of Mavs, Center Township, 
was born in Montgomerj^ Count}-, Ohio, August 29, 1840, being 
the son of Lewis and Henrietta Rhodes, who were natives of 
Montgomery County, Ohio, and Rockingham County, Va., respect- 
ively. His father was the son of Philip Rhodes, and his mother 
was the daughter of Charles Yost. When he was eight vears 
old, his parents came to Rush County, and settled in Center Town- 
ship, where his early life was spent upon a farm. He was married 
at twentjr-one years of age, or February 27, 1862, to Mary Hollin- 
head, who was born in Hancock County, Ind., November 25, 1844. 
She was the daughter of Thomas and Leah HoUinhead. Ever 
since their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Rhodes have resided in Center 
Township, and for the past four years they have resided in the 
village of Mays. The chief occupation of Mr. Rhodes has been 
farming though he has also given some attention to the bu3'ing 
and seUing of live stock and to the preparation and sale of fresh 
meats. He and wife are the parents of eleven children: Flora B., 
born January 5, 1S63; Sarah M., born June 30, 1S64; Emma F., 
born August 2, 1866, died September i, 1870; Anna J., born 
March Ji, 1867; James W., born December 24, 1869; Molhe M., 
born April 9, 1872; Owen W., born August 19, 1873; Mattie M., 
born July 17, 1875;" Eva E., born May 2, 1877; William H., born 
June 30, 1879, and Iva E., born Februarv 23, 1882. Mr. and Mrs. 
Rhodes are the grandparents of two children: Rella F., born June 
19, 1SS2, and Elva G., born August 10, 18S5. The political affil- 
iations of Mr. Rhodes are with the Democratic party. 

William F. Rhodes, farmer of Center Township, is the son 


of Abraham and Mary Rhodes whose history is given elsewliere in 
this work. He was born upon the old home place where his 
father now lives, in Center Township, December 13, 1845. His 
early life was spent assisting to plant and cultivate the crops in 
summer, and attending school in winter. Fie was married to Miss 
Eliza Buscher, March i, 1S66. She was born in Ripley Town- 
ship, January 13, 1848. Her parents, Edward W. and Susann 
Buscher, were natives of Germany and Ohio respectively, both of 
German descent. Immediately after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Rhodes located upon the farm they now occupy, where Mr. Rhodes 
has given his undivided attention to farming. They have had four 
children: Edward A., Ara L., Am}- D. and Effie I., all of whom 
are living except Am}- D., who died in childhood. Mr. and Mrs. 
Rhodes are members of the Christian Church. In politics Mr. 
Rhodes is a Democrat. His farm contains about 102 acres a good 
share of which is in a high state of cultivation. It contains a hand- 
some residence and is in other respects well improved. Mr. 
Rhodes is an honorable man and a good farmer. 

John F. Souther, farmer of Center Township, was born in 
Wilkes County, N. C, being the son of Joshua and Martha 
Souther, both natives of Wilkes County, N. C. He was reared in 
his native count}^ on a farm. In 1849, he came to Rush County, 
and has ever since been one of the farmers of Center Town- 
ship. He was married to Mary Ann Bowles, who bore to him 
eight children, Alvina, Josephine, Dora, Henry, Emma F., iVddie, 
Viola, and a son that died unnamed. Of those named, Alvina, 
Josephine and Dora are deceased. Mrs. Souther died July 15, 
18S1. In politics, Mr. Souther is a Republican. He owns forty 
acres of land, is an industrious man and a good citizen. 

Daniel O. Stowhig, farmer of Center Township, was born in 
Ireland, August 18, 1837. His parents both died when he was 
yet an infant child, there being but one day between their deaths. 
He has, therefore, but very little knowledge of his father and 
mother. While he was a small child they came to America 
and to Henr}' County, Ind., where they both died. The early 
life of our subject was spent upon a farm in Center Township. In 
August, 1861, he entered Company I, Thirty-seventh Indiana 
Regiment, with which he served three years. He came back to 
Rush Count)^ and on the 29th day of August, 1S70, he was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Nancy C. Wysong, who was the daughter of John 
and Nancy Temple. She was born in Rockbridge County, Va., 
September 29, 1838. They entered upon their married life in 
Knightstown, and in the spring of 1871 they settled upon a farm in 
Ripley Township, this county. Two years later they removed to 


Center Township, and after a residence of one j-ear upon the farm 
now occupied by Jonathan L. Lord, they settled upon the farm 
they now occupy. The}^ are the parents of two children, Iva C, 
and Harry H., both living. By her first husband, George W. Wv- 
song, Mrs. Stowhig had three children, Washington, Frank INI., 
and Perl O., the first two of whom are deceased. Mr. and Mrs. 
Stowhig and daughter Perl are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. In politics, Mr. Stowhig is a Republican. He 
and wife have a good farm and a comfortable home where the}- 

Andrew J. Todd, who has resided in Center Township since 
1849, ^^''^^ born in Mercer County, Pa., March 6, 1820, being the 
son of John and Mary M. Todd, the former a native of Ireland, and 
the latter a native of Montgomery County, Pa. His father was of 
Irish and the latter of Dutch descent. He was reared on a farm in 
his native countv. When he was nineteen years old he came to 
this State and spent a few months in Ripley and Franklin counties, 
working at farm work. He then came to Rush Counts', a resident 
of which he has been ever since. He was married August 10, 
1842, to Elizabeth David, who was born in Bourbon County, Ky., 
October 25, 1818, being the daughter of Jacob and Catharine 
David, both natives of Pennsj'lvania. The life occupation of Mr. 
Todd has been farming. He and wife have had seven children as 
follows: Catharine, John, Rachel, Leah, Mar\', Jacob D. and 
Joseph W., of whom Mary is deceased. In politics Mr. Todd is a 
Democrat. He owns 117 acres of good land, most of which is in 

John Henry W. Weavinger, a prosperous farmer of Center 
Township, was born in Owen Count}', Ind., JMarch 6, 1S50. He 
was the son of John and Susan Weavinger, the former of whom 
was born in Germany, and the latter was born in Pennsylvania, 
both of German descent. When he was about five years old his 
parents removed to Richmond, this State, and one year and a half 
later they settled upon a farm six miles southwest of that citj', 
where the youth of our subject was spent upon a farm. He was 
married in Center Township, this county, on the lOth da}' of June, 
1S75, to Miss Jennie Buscher, who was born in Ripley Township, 
this county, Januar}^ 20, 1855, being the daughter of Edward W. 
and Susann Buscher, of Center Township. Air. and Mrs. Weav- 
inger entered upon their married life upon a farm in Wavne Countv, 
and about fifteen months later thev came to Rush Count^■, and 
have ever since resided upon a farm in Center Township. They 
have occupied their present home since the ist of August, 1881. 
They have had born to them two children, Anna B., born June 17, 


1876, and Willie L., bora July 5, 1877, died Febru*ary 22, 1878. 
In politics, Mr. Weavinger is a Democrat. He and wife have a 
comfortable home and fifty acres of good land, a good part of Avhich 
is in cultivation. 

Elder Harvey Wright, of Center Township, is a native of 
Montgomery County, Ohio, born September 9, 1820, being the son 
of Dan and" Catharine (Reeder) Wright, who were respectively 
natives of Vermont and Ohio, the former of English, and the latter 
of Welsh and German descent. His father was the son of Dan 
Wright; his mother was the daughter of George and Margaret 
(Van Cleve) Reeder, who are presumed to be natives of Pennsyl- 
vania. When he was yet a young child less than a year old his 
parents came to Rush County, and became among the first settlers 
of Richland Township. There his early life was spent assisting to 
clear and cultivate his father's farm. When he was in his twen- 
tieth vear, or in 1840, he accompanied his parents to Orange Town- 
ship, Favette County, where they settled upon a farm. During 
his boyhood he attended the district school, but the advantages 
were poor, consequently his early education was quite limited. This 
lack of early training has been somewhat mitigated though by 
reading and home stud}'. During the winters of 1842-3, and 1843-4, 
he taught public school in Fayette County. Before his second 
term of school closed he was married, on the 27th day of Decem- 
ber, 1843, to Miss Delilah Stephen, who was born in Fayette 
Countv, Ind., March 2, 1827, being the daughter of Thomas G. and 
Hannah (Sutton) Stephen, who were natives of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, respectively. Her father was the son of Levi and Dehla 
(GatreU) Stephen, who were natives of Pennsylvania. Her mother 
was the daughter of David and Letitia (Gard) Sutton. Mr. 
and Mrs. Wright entered upon their married life upon a farm in 
Orange Township, Fayette County. They continued to reside in 
that township until the year 1865, when they removed to Center 
Township, this county, and they have ever since occupied their 
present home. Mr. Wright has a farm of 182 acres, about 130 of 
which is in cultivation. His farm is well improved and very desir- 
ably located. Mr. and Mrs. Wright have had eleven children, as 
follows: Drusilla, born November 27, 1845; Thomas, born Janu- 
ary 12, 1848; George, born April 28, 1850; Frances A., born 
November 26, 1852; Dan, born September 26, 1S54; John, born 
Api-il 8, 1856; Emma J., born April 2, 1S58; Joseph A., born No- 
vember 26, 1S60, died August 19, 1887; Rhoda C, born Septem- 
ber 16, 1866; Eva E., born August 29, 1869, and Luella G., born 
February 23, 1872. In July, 1850, Mr. and Mrs. Wright joined 
the Baptist Church, of which they have been devoted members 


ever since, fti 1854, Mr. Wright was ordained as a minister in 
that church, and he has continued to labor in that capacity ever 
since. His ministerial labors have chiefly been performed in Rush 
and Fayette counties, though his transient labors as a minister ex- 
tend to eleven different States of the Union. In politics, jMr. 
Wright is a Democrat. He is an intelligent, well read man, and in 
addition to general information, he possesses a masterly knowledge 
of the Holy Scriptures, to the discussion and correct interpretation 
of which a good portion of his time is devoted. He is unequivo- 
cally opposed to secret societies, and believes that our affiliations 
should be confined strictly to that society which embraces the prin- 
ciples of the Christian religion. 

Thomas Wright, the present Trustee of Center Township, 
was born in Fayette Count}-, January 12, 184S. His father. Rev. 
Harve}' Wright, was born in Ohio, and is now a time-honored 
Baptist minister and prominent citizen of Center Township. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Delilah Stephen, is a native of 
this State, having been born in Fayette Countv. His boyhood was 
spent in his native count}- upon a farm. In Februar}-, 1S65, he 
accompanied his parents to their present home, where he remained 
with them upon the farm until the time of his mari^iage, which 
occurred January 26, 1868. The lad}- that became his wife was 
Miss Mary E. Vandall, who was born in Shelby County, this State, 
April 22, 1S49. Ever since their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Wright 
have resided in Center Township, except about eight months of 
the year iBSi, during which they resided in Jackson Township. 
They have occupied their present home since October, 18S1. They 
are the parents of two daughters: Effie H. and Cora F., the for- 
mer of whom is at present a teacher in the public schools of Rush 
County. Mr. and Mrs Wright are both members of the Christian 
Church. In politics, Mr. Wright is a Democrat. He was elected 
Trustee of his township in the spring of 18S4, and was re-elected in 
the spring of 1886, with an increased majority, which is evidence 
of his standing as a citizen and of the good management of his 
office. He is one of his township's most industrious farmers, and 
he and wife are among- its best citizens. 




Bench and Bar — First Circuit — Early Judicial System — 
Organization of the Courts — First Sessions — The 
Young Murder Trial — Trial and Execution of Swan- 
son — Other Murder Cases — Comparison of Business 
OF THE Early Courts with that of the Present — 
The Megee Will Case — The Court of Common Pleas — 
Attorneys of Prominence — The Present Bar — Judges 
AND Other Court Officers — Roll of Attorneys. 

^N the year 1S22, Rush County was part of the Fifth 
^Judicial Circuit of Indiana. This circuit was bounded on 
the south b}' Jefferson County, on the north by the State 
of Michigan, on the east by the State of Ohio, and ex- 
tended westward about seventy-five miles. The country 
was new and thinly settled, there were no roads, travel 
was almost entirely by horseback, following the traces 
and blazes made by the pioneers in their early struggles 
with nature. The judiciary system was not unlike the country. It, 
too, was in its infancy. The bench consisted of a President Judge, 
elected by the Legislature, and two Associate Judges. The As- 
sociate Judges were generally farmers, who did not pretend to 
know any law, but they could over-rule the President Judge even 
on the most important questions of law, and could hold court in his 
absence. The President Judge traveled over the district on horse- 
back, and was generally accompanied by most of the prominent 
lawyers, as their business was co-extensive with the circuit. They 
carried their papers and law books in their saddle bags, and were 
alwavs ready to transact legal business. The opening of a term of 
court always brought the people into town for miles around to hear 
the lawyers plead. 

The organization of the Rush Circuit Court, took place on 
April 4, 1822, at the house of Stephen Sims, just south of the City 
of Rushville. William W. Wick, President Judge, and North 
Parker and Elias Poston, Associate Judges, presented their certifi- 
cates of appointment and were all sworn into office. Robert 
Thompson, as Clerk, and John Hays, as Sheriff, also presented 
their certificates of appointment and took the legal oath. A rudely 


constructed device capable of making some unintelligible impression 
on paper was presented by the Clerk, and adopted by the court as its 
seal. Court then adjourned to meet at 2 o'clock P. M., at the 
house of Jehu Perkins, about five miles southeast of Rushville ; no 
reason is known why the court left the county seat to meet five 
miles away, the late George Sexton said it was because Perkins 
kept a distillery there. Court met at the appointed time, and 
Hiram M. Curry was admitted to the Bar, and sworn in as Prose- 
cuting Attorney. The Sheriff brought in a Grand Jury, consisting 
of William Junkins, Jesse Perkins, Nate Perkins, Christian Clymer, 
John Walker, Powell Priest, Garrett Durlin, John Lower, Jacob 
Reed, John Hall, Richard Hackleman, Benjamin Sailors and Peter 
H. Patterson. The Grand Jury was sworn and charged, and re- 
ported no indictments, and were paid 75 cents each for their ser- 
vices. The court then adjourned, to meet next term, at the house 
of John Lower. At this first term of Court no business was trans- 
acted, the Rush Circuit Court in embr3'0 had organized and lasted 
a single day. Of the Judges, Court Officers and Grand Jury, of that 
term, not one is living, sixty-five years after the adjournment. 

The October Term, 1822, convened on the fourth of that month, 
at the house of John Lower, about three miles south, and a little 
west, of Rushville. Lower kept a tavern, and his place was known 
far and near. Judge Wick failed to put in an appearance, and the 
Associate Judges convened the court. John Hays, the Sheriff, did 
not appear. Plis mind had become impaired, and while wandering 
about in Hancock County he was arrested and put in the county 
jail, which he set on fire and perished in the flames. Richard 
Hackleman, the Coroner, empanelled a Grand Jury, of which Ed- 
ward J. Swanson, afterward conspicuous in the crimintd annals of 
the county, was foreman. At this term Martin A. Ray, Charles 
H. Test, Joseph A. Hopkins, James Noble, James Raridan and 
Charles H. Veeder were admitted to the Bar. The first case in 
court was that of Thomas Colbert z'5. Rachael Colbert, alias Ra- 
chael James, "on a libel for divorce."' James Noble appeared for 
plaintiff. The defendant was defaulted, notice of the pendency 
of the action having been given by publication in the Brookvillc 
Enquirer. The court fixed the tavern license at $10, and license 
was granted Jehu Perkins and Richard Thornburgh. The Grand 
Jury at this term returned several indictments, among them one 
against John Ray for hog-marking. The defendant was acquitted 
on the ground that the offense was committed before the organiza- 
tion of the count}'. The court then adjourned to meet next term 
at the house of Robert Thompson, in Rushville. 

The April Term, 1S23, met on the 24th of that month, at Robert 


Thompson's house in Rushville, only the iVssociate Judges being 
present. Nathaniel W. Marks, having been appointed Sheriff, 
entered upon the discharge of his duties. Hiram M. Cuny re- 
signed as Prosecuting Attorney, and Charles H. Test was appointed 
to till the vacancy. At this term of court, Aaron Anderson, a native 
of Ireland, renounced his allegiance to George Fourth and became 
the first person naturalized in Rush County. Oliver II. Smith was 
admitted to the Bar. Daniel Lawman was convicted for selhng 
liquor without license, and fined $2 in each of two cases. The 
judges allowed Charles H. Test $10 for his services as prosecutor, 
and allowed themselves $6 each for services. 

The August Term, 1823, convened on the 14th day of that 
month, with Miles C. Eggleston, President Judge, Parker and Pos- 
ton, Associates, and the same Clerk and Sheriff. The business of 
this term as heretofore, consisted principally of State cases of but little 
importance. The case of Isreal Cox z'5. James Greer, slander came 
on for trial. The slander consisted of Greer's having charged 
Cox with stealing his hogs. Charles H. Test appeared for plain- 
tiff, and Oliver H. Smith for defendant. The trial took place in a 
log court house, and in the course of his argument. Smith said that 
the speaking of the words had not been shown by the evidence; at 
this, Greer, who was on the outside, run his head through the win- 
dow and yelled out, " Don't lie Smith, I did say he stole my hogs, 
and I stick to it." Smith then told the court Greer had been drunk 
ever since the trial commenced, and asked that he be sent to jail until 
the trial was over. This was done and Smith gained the case. 

The April Term, 1824, was uneventful, a number of State cases 
against Joseph Looney were disposed of; Joseph being worsted in 
all of them. James Greer came into court drunk, and was fined for 
comtempt. Clerk Thompson and Sheriff Marks were each allowed 
$30 for one year's service. 

The September Term, 1S24, was held at the house of Robert 
Thompson, in Rushville. At this term of court the following or- 
der was made: " Ordered by the Court, now here, that the prison 
bounds for the County of Rush, shall be the limits of the town 
plat of Rushville, as recorded in the Recorder's otfice of the 
County of Rush." This prison limit was made for the prisoner 
for debt. 

The April Term, 1825, was held at the house of Christian Cly- 
mer. Hon. Bethuel F. Morris entered upon his duties as President 
Judge. Rue Pugh was appointed Master in Chancery. Isaac Ar- 
nold, a native of " Isle of Wight, Old England," made his applica- 
tion and was naturalized. 

At the September Term, 1S25, John Gregg succeeded North 


Parker, as one of the Associate Judges. Calvin Fletcher, Esq., pre- 
sented his commission and was sworn in as Prosecuting Attorney. 
At the April Term, 1826, William S. Bussell entered upon the 
discharge of the duties of his office as Sheriff, and Calvin Fletcher 
as Prosecuting Attorney. At this term James Divers was tried 
and convicted of larceny, and given one year in the penitentiary. 
The business of this term was about all criminal, the defendants 
being in most cases charged with assault and battery, and betting, 
and were generally found guilty. 

The October Term, 1826, was held in the court house, in 
Rushville. James Mitchell presented his commission and was 
sworn in as Prosecuting Attorney. Sampson Cassady was one of 
the Grand Jurors. He is now (November, 1887), the only man 
living who served on a Grand Jury at so early a date. William 
Klumm and Charles H. Veeder, were indicted, tried and found 
guilt}' of an affray. They appealed the case to the Supreme Court 
where it was reversed (ist Black. 377). This was the first case 
appealed to the Supreme Court from Rush County. 

At the April Term, 1827, James Whitcomb presented his com- 
mission and was sworn in as Prosecuting Attorney. The business 
of this term as heretofore Was mostty criminal. , The slander suit 
of Frances Clark vs. George Taj'lor was tried and verdict ren- 
dered for $50 against defendant. 

T/ie I'oinig' Murder Trial. — The October Term, 1827, con- 
vened with Judge Bethuel F. Morris as President Judge, and John 
Gregg and Elias Poston, Associates. It was at this term that the 
first murder trial in Rush Countj^ took place. Alexander Young 
had been indicted for the murder of John Points, a jmy consisting 
of Robert Groves, Benjamin Head}', Nicholas Barton, Asa Beck, 
John W. Barbour, Richard Thornbury, Landy Hurst, William 
Kitchen, George Conrad, John Her, John Ferris, and Josiah Lee, 
was empanelled, and the trial prosecuted. The prosecution was 
conducted by Hon. Oliver H. Smith and James Whitcomb. The 
defense was by Charles H. Test, James Raridan and James T. 
Brown. The facts in the case w"ere very imfortunate. Young was 
a thrifty, well-to-do farmer, and had a beautiful daughter about 
seventeen years old. Points was a young man of respect^bilit}', 
the son of a neighboring farmer. He was much attached to Miss 
Young, but her father would not consent to their marriage, and 
elopement followed. Young pursued the fleeing couple, and by 
running across the corner of a woods got ahead of them. He con- 
cealed himself behind a tree, and when the couple, who were both 
riding the same horse, came up. Young fired upon them with his 
rifle. The ball grazed the head of Miss Young, and entered that 

^ l<<yJ<cUf 



of Points, who died two hours later. From the time the fatal shot 
was fired Young was completely overcome with sorrow, and ex- 
pressed such evidence of grief that he enlisted public sympathy in 
his favor. His defense was so ably conducted that he was only 
found guilty of manslaughter and received the minimum sentence 
of the law, one year in the penitentiary. Thus justice w4iad been 
tempered by mercy. The Governor soon pardoned Young. He 
returned to his home broken and ruined in fortune and hopes, and 
it is said he never smiled after he fired the shot. The daughter 
afterward married, but the strain of her awful experience preyed 
upon her until her mind became wrecked. For thirty years before 
her death she was a raving maniac, oblivious to all things, but the 
memory of June 4, 1827- 

The April and October Terms, 182S, were of no importance in 
any way of business transaction. 

The S-^vanson Case. — At the April term, 1829, Edward J. Swan- 
son was indicted and tried for the murder of Elishi Clark; the 
prosecution was conducted by William W. Wick and James Whit- 
comb, and the defense by Charles H. Test. The indictment em- 
bodied the essentials of the common law. It was drawn by James 
Whitcomb, and from it and the crushing prosecution escape was 
hopeless. The jury returned a verdict of guilty, which stands 
alone in the severity of punishment in the judicial histor}' of the 
county. The defendants filed a motion for a new trial, assigning 
as one of the reasons that the Judge had charged the jury 
"that they were the judges of the facts and the court the judge of 
the law. " The Judge, Hon. B. F. Morris, over-ruled all the mo- 
tions and sentenced Swanson to be hanged on the following May 
nth, one month after the trial. Swanson disheartened, yielded to 
the inevitable and refused to appeal his case to the Supreme Court 
where there is scarcely any doubt that it would have been reversed. 
The execution occurred at the time fixed, and Swanson was the 
only man who ever paid the extreme penalty of the law in Rush 
County bv an ignominious death upon the scaffold. 

At the October Term, 1829, Hugh Monroe was tried for murder. 
James Whitcomb, Prosecutor: Charles H. Test and James Raridan, 
James T. Brown and Oliver H. Smith defended. Monroe and de- 
ceased had been on bad terms for some time, and while at a shoot- 
ing match, deceased while fixing a target was shot and instantly 
killed by Monroe, who was found guilty and sent to the peniten- 
tiary for sixteen years, but was afterward pardoned by the Gov- 
ernor. It was at this term of court that John Gregg and Mont- 
gomery McCall took their seats as Associate Judges. 

At the March Term, 1830, Charles H. Test came upon the 



bench as President Judge. James Perry was Prosecutor. Busi- 
ness was very dull at this term. James T^-ler was fined for con- 
tempt for coming into court intoxicated, and talking loud. 

September Term, 1830: Alfred Posey having been elected 
Sheriff, assumes control of the affairs of that office. At this term 
Judge Test made an examination of the records and gave the Clerk 
a sound lecturing on account of erasures and interlineations. 

March and September Terms, 1831, were entirely taken up 
with little State cases. March Term, 1832, Wilham J. Brown, 
Prosecutor: The following order was entered at this term: "James 
Raridan, Esq., fined $1 for standing up before the fire, in com- 
tempt of court." The fine was remitted next day. The court 
house took fire March 22, and created a commotion in court. John 
F. Irvin and Avanant T. Lewis ventured on the roof and extin- 
guished the flames, receiving therefor the thanks of the court for 
this brave act. The Grand Jur}- examined the jail and reported 
that "it was in a bad state of decay, for several of the logs are 
much rotted, and the door has no lock." 

This concludes a brief history of the Rush Circuit Court for the 
first ten years of its existence; all the proceedings of that period 
are recorded on 239 pages of Order Book, w'hile for the last ten 
years 5,277 pages of the same kind of record have been required. 
This indicates the marvelous growth of the business transaction. 

The most important civil case ever tried in the Rush Circuit 
Court was that to contest the will of John Megee. The plaintiffs 
were represented by Daniel W. Voorhees, Benjamin F. Clavpool 
and William A. Cullen, the defendants bv Thomas A. flendricks, 
Leonidas Sexton, Oscar B. I-ford and Abram W. Hendricks. The 
charges of Judge Jeremiah M. Wilson were excepted to and ap- 
pealed from. The judgment of the Supreme Court (36 Ind., 6g), 
include the entire charges of Judge Wilson, and complimented that 
distinguished jurist in the following language: "We have given 
these instructions, repeated, and careful and thorough examination, 
and we fully indorse them, in all respects fully applicable and 
w'arranted by the evidence in and circumstances of the case. They 
show great learning, research and care;" these charges are quoted 
in the courts of every State in the Union. Judge Wilson is now a 
distinguished lawyer in Washington City. 

T//e Coninwii Pleas Court was established in 1853. It had 
jurisdiction of probate matters, and of all offenses less than felo- 
nies, except what Justices of the Peace had exclusive jurisdiction of. 
It had concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit Court in most matters, 
and at first appeals could be taken from it, to the Circuit Court. 
This was afterward abolished and appeals were taken direct to the 



Supreme Court. The Common Pleas Court was abolished in 
1872, and wound up its business in January, 1873. In Rush County 
a large amount of the business was transacted in this court. The 
Clerk and SheriiJ of the Circuit Court were the officers of the 
Common Pleas Court. 

Attornevs. — This chapter would be incomplete without men- 
tioning some of the active practitioners. Charles H. Test was a 
law3'er of great ability. He w'as Secretary of State in 1826, and 
was afterward Judge of the Marion Criminal (Circuit) Court; he 
died a few years ago at a ripe old age. 

Samuel Bigger while on the Circuit Bench in 1840, was nom- 
inated by the Whigs, for Governor, and elected, defeating the 
Democratic candidate, Gen. Tighlman A. Howard, by a large ma- 
jority. Judge Bigger was a man of prepossessing appearance, 
being over six feet high. He was a good speaker, and his pure 
unsullied private life made him a formidable candidate. But in all 
these qualities, he enjoyed no superiority over his distinguished 
opponent. The contest was a hard fought one, but Judge Bigger 
won, and the electoral vote of Indiana, went to General Harrison, 
for the Presidency, a fact niainly due to efforts of Judge Bigger. 
He has been dead many vears. 

Pleasant A. Hackleman came to Rushville in 1837. He was 
then twenty-three j'ears of age. He had read law at Brookville 
under Col. John A. Matson, and had just been admitted to the Bar. 
While not as profound a lawyer, perhaps, as some of his associates 
at the Bar, he was a good speaker, and made a fine appearance on 
the platform. His fort was politics. He wielded great influence 
with his party and held manv public offices. He was killed at the 
batttle of Corinth while rallying his men. A braver soldier never 
faced the iron hail of battle or died in the arms of victory where 
contending armies struggled. 

Leonidas Sexton was admitted to the Bar in 1847, and arose at 
once to the front rank. He was not only ripe in his knowledge of 
the law, but a master of its practice. He was a forcible speaker, 
was elected to the Legislature, Lieutenant Governor, and a mem- 
ber of Congress. He was about six feet high, would weigh more 
than 200 pounds, and his mind was as massive as his form. 
He never allowed himself to get excited during a trial, and, being a 
gentleman himself, he alwa3'S accorded the same treatment to his 
fellowmen. He died March 6, 1880, after a short illness. 

George B. Sleeth was perhaps the most brilliant orator at the 
Rush County Bar in recent years. He was admitted to the Bar in 
1866, and arose rapidly as a lawyer. Mr. Sleeth was born in 
Pennsylvania. His parents died when he was a child, and he 


drifted penniless to Rush Count}', where he worked as a farm hand 
until near of age, when he borrowed money of his employer and 
entered college. He studied law with Hon. Leonidas Sexton, and 
Hon. George C. Clark. He served with ability in both branches of 
the Legislature, and there are many laws on the statute books of 
Indiana which had their origin in the lucid mmd of George B. 
Sleeth. He was an orator by nature, education and training. Mr. 
Sleeth died at his home in Rushville in 18S2. 

Jesse J. Spann was admitted to the Bar at the fall term 1871; 
he had been in business in Rushville, and having failed, concluded 
to enter the legal profession. He did not have the advantage of 
early education, but he had a ver^^ retentive memory and was well 
versed in literature, biographj^ and history. He did not possess the 
legal knowledge of Sexton and Sleeth but was a ver}' able advo- 
cate and trial lawyer. We doubt if he had an equal in the 
State as a ready thinker "on his feet." He was a member of the 
Indiana Senate,- and achieved a reputation as a legislator. He died 
February 22, 1SS7, at the age of forty-four; thus in the short period 
of seven years death had gathered three of the ablest members of 
the Bar — Sexton, Sleeth and Spann. What a trio of illustrious 

Jefferson Helm, Jr., was a well read lawj-er. He was admitted 
to the Bar in September, 1859, ^^'^ ^^'''■^ actively engaged in the 
practice until his death, in 18S5. 

Space will not permit any mention of the living attorneys at the 
Rush County Bar, as sketches of them will be given elsewhere. 
The Bar is a strong one in the points of the abihty, integrity and 
good citizenship of its members. The following is the list of the 
present members of the Bar: 

Finley Bigger, Claude Cambern, James Corey, 

Thomas Poe, James W. Brown, Thomas M. Ochiltree, 

William Cassady, Gates Sexton, Ulysses D. Cole, 

George C. Clark, Lot D. Guflin, Will. J. Henley, 

Ben. L. Smith, John Q. Thomas, W. T. Jackson, 

"Geo. H. Puntenney, Wm. A. CuUen, Benj. F. Miller, 

Frank J. Hall, George W. Young, John F. Joyce, 

D. S. Morgan, Arthur B. Irvin, Douglas Morris, 

John Fraizer, Thomas J. Newkirk, Chas. F. Kennedy. 
John W. Study, 

The office of Judge of the Rush Circuit Court has been filled 
by the following named persons: William W. Wick, 1822; IMiles 
C. Eggleston, 1823; Wilham W. Wick, 1824; Bethuel F. Morris, 
1825; Charles H. Test, 1830; Samuel Bigger, 1836; James Perry, 
1840; Jehu T. ElHott, 1844; Oliver P. Morton, 1852; Wilham 
McCart}', 1853; Reuben D. Logan, 1853; Jereiniah M. Wilson, 
1866; Wilham A. Cullen, 1871; Samuel A. Bonner, 1877. 


The office of Associate Judges has been held by the following 
named persons: Elias Poston, 1822; North Parker, 1822; John 
Gregg, 1S25; Montgomery McCall, 1829; John Alley, 1S3S; 
William P. Andrews, 1S38; Fletcher Tevis, 1840; John M. Ilud- 
elson, 1S41; Jethro S. Folger, 1843; Lewis Salla, 1843; William 
Thomas, 1850; James Walker, 1S50. This office was abolished 
in 1853. 

The otlice of the Probate Judge of Rush County has been filled 
by the following named persons: Elias Poston and North Parker, 
the Associate Judges from 1822; Elias Poston, 1829; Turner A. 
Knox, 1836; Pleasant A. Hackleman, 1S37; Alexander Walker, 
1841; James Hinchman, 1848. The office of the Judge of the 
Probate Court was abolished in 1853, and the jurisdiction of that 
court transferred to the Common Pleas Court. 

The office of Judge of the Common Pleas Court has been 
filled by the following persons: Royal P. Cobb, 1853; Samuel A. 
Bonner, 1857; William Grose, 1861; David S. Gooding, 1862; 
WiUiam R. West, 1865; William A. Cullen, 1S67; William A. 
Moore, 1S71. This court was abolished in 1873, and its business 
transferred to the Rush Circuit Court. 

The Prosecuting Attorneys of the Rush Circuit Court, have been 
Hiram M. Curr}', 1822; Charles H. Test, 1S23; James Whitcomb, 
1826; James Perry, 1830; William J. Brown, 1832: Samuel W. 
Parker, 1837; David Macy, 1839; Martin M. Ray, 1S41; Jehu 
T. Elliott, 1S43; Jacob B.Julian, 1844; John B. Still," 1846; P. Y. 
Wilson, 1848; Benjamin F. Johnson, 1850; Joshua H. Mellett; 
1851; Oscar B. Hord, 1853; WiUiam Patterson, 1856; Henry C. 
Hanna, 1859; Milton H. Cullum, 1861; Samuel S. Harrell, 1863; 
Creighten Dandy, 1865; Kendall M. Hord, 1867; Alexander B. 
Campbell, 1869"; Elias R. Monforth, 1873; Orlando B. Scoby, 
1874; John L. Bracken, 1879; Richard A. Durnan, 1880; Marine 
D. Tackett, 1881; George W. Campbell, 1886. 

The office of Clerk of Rush County has been filled bv the 
following named persons: Robert Thompson, 1822; John L. Rob- 
inson, 1B43; Pleasant A. Hackleman, 1847; George Hibben, 1856; 
John S. Campbell, i860; Benjamin F. Tingley, 1864; James W. 
Brown, 1872; Jetson Smith, 1875; James W. Brown, 1879; James 
M. Hildreth, 1885. 

The following named persons have filled the office of Sheriff of 
Rush County: John Hays, 1822; Nathaniel W. Marks, 1823; 
William S. Bussell, 1826; Alfred Posey, 1830; Greenburv Rush, 
1834: George W. Brann, 1836; Alvin N. Blackhdge, 1838; Ne- 
hemiah Haydon, 1842; Walter Brown, 1844; Harmony Laughlin, 
1848; Nehemiah Haydon, 1850; James M. Caldwell, 1853; Har- 



mony Laughlin, 1S55; Samuel H. Caskey, 1S57; Harmgny Laugh- 
lin, 1S59; Samuel S. McBride, 1S63; Alexander McBride, 1865; 
Jonathan H. Cook, 1867. 

The following is the list of the attorneys who have been ad- 
mitted to practice in the Rush Circuit Court, and also the term at 
which they were admitted. 


Hiram M. Curry, April, 1S22. 
Charles H. Test, October, 1S22. 
Martin M. Ray, October, 1S22. 
Joseph E. Hopkins, October, 1822. 
James Noble, October, 1S22. 
James Raridan, October, 1822. 
"Charles H. Veeder, October, 1S22. 
Oliver H. Smith, April, 1S23. 
James T. Brown, August, 1S23. 
W. R. Morris, August, 1823. 
David Wallace, August, 1823. 
John T. McKinney, August, 1823. 
John Test, August, 1S23. 
Lott Bloomfield, August, 1823. 
James B. Ray, August, 1823. 
Joseph Cox, April, 1S24. 
Philip Sweetzer, April, 1S24. 
James Delaney, April, 1824. 
Calvm Fletcher, April, 1824. 
Josiah F. Polk, September, 1824. 
William Carpenter, September, 1S24. 
Albert S. White, April, 1S26. 
Septimus Smith, April, 1826. 
Peter H. Pattison, April, 1827. 
John McPike, April, 1827. 
Hiram Brown, April, 1827. 
Hilton Jamison, October, 1S27. 
Merrimus Willitts, October, 1827. 
William J. Brown, March, 1830. 
Gustavus Everett, March, 1830. 
Isaac M. Johnson, March, 1S30. 
William J. Peaslee, April, 1S33. 
Samuel P. Bascom, April, 1833. 
Stephen Major, April, 1833. 
David Macy, April, 1S33. 
Andrew Cannady, September, 1833. 
William Elliott, September, 1S34. 
James D. Cook, September, 1834. 
"George B. Tingley, April, 1835. 
Abraham Hammond, April, 1835. 
Peter Ryman, April, 1S35. 
George H. Dunn, April, 1S35. 

John B , October, 1836. 

Jesse Morgan, April, 1836. 

John Alley, April, 1836. 

Jacob Robbins, April, 1S36. 

Finley Bigger, April, 1836. 

Robert S. Cox, April, 1836. 

Mason Hulit, .\pril, 1836. 

Pleasant A. Hackleman, April, 1837. 

Turner A. Knox, April, 1S37. 
W, H. Brumfield, April, 1S37. 
Thomas D. Hankins, April, 1837. 
John Brownlee, October, 1S37. 
James Miner, October, 1S37. 
Richard Winchell, October, 1S37. 
John A. Matson, October, 1837. 
Thomas D. Walpole, October, 1837. 
H. M. Woodyard, October, 183S. 
Henry S. Christian, April, 1839. 
Janes G. May, April, 1S39. 
Goorge Holland, April, 1S40. 
Ashel W. Hubbard, April, 1840. 
Phineas Cassady, April, 1840. 
George Gordon, April, 1840. 
Jacob Julian, Fall, 1S42. 
Joseph Justice, Fall, 1S42. 
John S. Reed, Fall, i8;i2. 
David M. C. Lane, Fall, 1843. 
Reuben D. Logan, Fall, 1S43. 
George W. Whiteman, Fall, 1843. 
Samuel E. Perkins, Spring, 1S.44. 
James Fay, Spring, 1S44. 
Eden H. Davis, Spring, 1S44. 
Reuben A. Riley, Spring, 1844. 
George C. Clark, Fall, 1S44. 
Ely Murphy, Fall, 1844. 
L. Sexton, Fall, 1847. 
Charles Woodward, Fall, 1S47. 
Robert S. Sproule, Fall, 1S47. 
Joseph Norris, Fall, 1847. 
Jonathan M. Gardner, Fall, 1849. 
Benjamin F. Johnson, Fall, 1849. 
William Henderson, Fall, 1S49. 
Squire W. Robinson, Fall, 1849. 
Matthias Wright, Spring, 1850. 
Alfred Major, Spring, 1850. 
Daniel D. Jones, Spring, 1851. 
Ralf Berkshire, Spring, 1S51. 
Joseph Roberts, ?"all, 1851. 
Lewis H. Thomas, Spring, 1S52. 
Thomas C. Gilpin, Spring, 1856. 
Patt Wicks, Fall, 1856. 
Benjamin L. Smith, April, 1857. 
William A. Cullen, September, 1S57. 
William Cassady, September, 1857. 
Joshua H. Mellett, September, 1857. 
William Cumback, September, 1S57. 
Milton S. Mavity, March, 185S. 
Joseph W, Chapman, September, 1858. 



Isaac II. Stewart, September, 1S5S. 
A. H. Connor, September, 1S5S. 
W. O. bexton, September, 1S5S. 
Rodman Davis, March, 1859. 
Wm. H. Pugh, September, 1859. 
Jefferson Helm, Jr., September, 1859. 
Oliver B. Torbett, September, 1S59. 
Amaziah H. Layton, September, 1S59. 
Alexander B. Campbell, Spring, 1866. 
Hugh M. Spaulding, Spring, i856. 
George \V. Bates, Spring, 1866. 
William W. Kersey, Spring, 1S67. 
George H. Puntenney, Spring, 1867. 
Frank J. Hall, Spring, 1S69. 
.Ellas K. Monfort, Spring, 1869. 
Alfred Major, Spring, 1869. 
A. Smith Folger, Spring, 1870, 
John W. Study, Spring, 1870. 
Levy W. Study, Fall, 1870. 
Jesse J. Spann, Fall, 1871. 
Thomas Foe, Fall, 1871. 
A. B. Irvin, Fall, 1S71. 
William Lewis, Spring, 1S72. 
David W. McKee, Spring, 1S72. 
George W. Young, Spring, 1872. 

Charles Catlin, March, 1S74. 
Claude Cambern, Marcli, 1874. 
Albert Irvin, March, 1S74. 
O. S. Moore, May, 1S74. 
James W. Brown, November, 1S75. 
John D. Megee, March, 1S76. 
Joseph I. Little, May, 1876. 
Thomas J. Newkirk, October, 1876. 
Edwin P. Ferris, December, 1878. 
William A. Posey, May, 18S0. 
W. S. Morris, October, 1880. 
.George W. Campbell, October, 1880. 
Gates .Sexton, May, 18S1. 
U. D. Cole, May, 1S81. 
F'rank P. Kennedy, May, 18S1. 
Thomas H. Smith, May, 1882. 
Samuel H. Spooner, October, 1882. 
William J. Henley, June, 18S3. 
James W. Tucker, October, 1S84. 
Do^iglas Morris, October, 18S5. 
Floward Barrett, December, 1S85. 
Ben F". Miller, December, 1S85. 
Samuel H. Brown, June, 1886. 
Charles F. Kennedy, December, l88f 
Lot D. Guffin, March, 1887. 


James Beale was born on the farm where he now resides, 
November 17, 183S. He was the eighth in a family of nine 
children born to William and Margaret (Love) Beale, the former 
a native of New York, and the latter of Ohio. They were mar- 
ried near Cincinnati, Ohio, November 5, 1823, and began hfe to- 
gether on a farm near Milroy, Rush Co., Ind., in December, 1823, 
which places them among the pioneer settlers of this county. Mr. 
Beale entered an eighty-acre tract of virgin forest in Anderson 
Township, put up a cabin and continued to reside there until the 
spring of 1S38, at which time he sold his property in Anderson 
Township, and purchased 190 acres in Section 22, Jackson Town- 
ship. On this tract there had once been a small clearing made. 
Here Mr. and Mrs. Beale resided until their respective deaths. Mrs. 
Beale passed away August 4, 1866, and Mr. Beale, March 22, 
1883. They were devout members of the Presbyterian Church, 
and highly respected by all who knew them. Thus ended the 
lives of two of Rush County's earliest pioneers ; but they had lived 
to rear a large family of sons and daughters. As stated, our sub- 
ject, James Beale, was born and reared on the farm he owns at 
present. His early school advantages were fair, and he received a 
good common school education. Being brought up on a farm, he 
adopted farming as a life occupation, and to-day can be classed 


among the successful farmers of Jackson Township. On January 
3, 1S67, he chose for his hfe companion Miss Margaret E. Gil- 
more, daughter of James and Mar}' (George) Gilmore, natives of 
Belfast, Ireland, and of Scotch-Irish descent. They emigrated to 
America about 1838, and first located at Lancaster, Pa. The 
former ended his days in this county, and the latter at Knights- 
town, in Henry Count}'. Mrs. Beale was born in Washington 
County, Pa., October 14, 1844, and has resided in Rush County 
since 1851. To this union five children have been born: John G., 
William R., Carl, Wilbur and Mary L., of whom William R. and 
Carl are deceased. Mr. Beale is a Republican in politics, but has 
never sought political preferment. He is a member of the A. O. 
U. W., of Rushville, Ind. He began life in fair circumstances, 
and by industry and perseverance has been eminently successful. 
He owns the old home farm, which can be classed among the best 
in Jackson Township, and is provided with good improvements. 
He is honest and upright, and holds the confidence and respect of 
the community. 

James M. Caldwell is a native of Bedford County, Pa., born 
July 3, 181 1. His parents were William and Rebecca Caldwell, 
the former a native of Kentucky, and the latter of Mar}land. 
Our subject grew to manhood on a farm in Pennsylvania, and 
received a fair education for that day of limited school advan- 
tages. He taught several terms of school in Pennsvlvania and 
Indiana. In his youth he was apprenticed to learn the tanner's 
trade, but after completing it was compelled to abandon the trade 
on account of rheumatism. In the spring of 1837, the Caldwells 
disposed of their property in Pennsylvania, and turned their atten- 
tion westward. They loaded their household effects into two wag- 
ons, and started overland for Rush County, Ind. After three weeks 
of steady traveling, they drew up at what is now known as the 
old Caldwell homestead. Here the family moved into a rude cabin 
with clapboard doors and no windows. Neighbors were scarce and 
all seemed an unbroken wilderness. Mrs. Caldwell wished for some 
time after her arrival that she had remained in Pennsylvania, but by 
degrees the wilderness was transformed into a beautiful home, and all 
soon began to enjoy themselves. All went well until death visited the 
family in 1845, and removed William Caldwell, oi\e of the pioneers 
and honored citizens of the county. Mrs. Caldwell survived him 
until the nth of March, 1885, when she, too, was called home. 
Her birth occurred on the 9th of September, 1785, and at the time 
of her death only lacked a few months of being one hundred years 
of age. Our subject, James M. Caldwell was united in marriage 
with Miss Alcy Ploughe, March 7, 1844. ^^^ '^^'^^ the daughter 


of Isaac and Mary (Hobbs) Ploughe. Alcy was born in Greens- 
burg, where she was reared until she was about twelve years of 
age, when her parents removed to this count3^ This union was 
blessed with nine children, William A., Mary E., Sadie, Lydia M., 
George H., Barton S. (deceased), James E., Rachel M., and Oli- 
ver P.; all those living are grown to maturity. Mr. and Mrs. 
Caldwell are members of the Christian Church, with which they 
have been identified over forty years. Politically, Mr. Caldwell is 
a staunch Republican, and firmlv upholds the principles of that 
partv, and at one time held the office of Sheriff of Rush County. 
He began life at the bottom of the ladder, and in 1838-9 and 40, 
we find him teaming between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Rushville. He 
carefully saved his earnings and in this way laid the foundation for 
his start in life. After his marriage he farmed as a renter, but in 
the fall of 1844, he moved into a cabin situated on forty acres of 
land he owns at present. Fifty years ago last May, Mr. Caldwell 
landed here, and a great change has taken place smce then. Here 
he has spent the principal part of his life and has succeeded in de- 
veloping a fine farm in Section 24. He and his venerable compan- 
ion who has stood by his side through the trials of life for nearly a 
half century, ai"e now enjoving a comfortable home, surrounded by 
honorable sons and daughters, who after the father and mother have 
passed away, will keep their memories green. 

Harvy Caldwell was born in Bedford County, Pa., Septem- 
ber 23, 1828, and was the son of William and Rebecca (Havner) 
Caldwell, whose personal history appears with their son's, James 
M. Caldwell. When Harvey was nine years of age, he accom- 
panied his parents to this county, and located on the farm where 
he now resides; this was fifty years ago the 17th of May, 1887. All 
was then a wilderness, and it seemed like a great undertaking to 
make a home in the forest. It might be said that our subject was 
reared on this farm. His early education was fair. When he was 
seventeen years old, and thereafter, it devolved upon Harvey to 
assist in supporting his widowed mother, who lived until March 11, 
1885, aged ninety-nine years six months, two days. He adopted 
farming as a life profession. On August ir, 1862, he enlisted in 
Company D, 68th Indiana V^olunteers, under command of Capt. James 
Innis; he was placed in the Department of the Cumberland, under 
command of Gen. Thomas, and during the hotly contested battle 
at Chickamauga on Septem.ber 19-20, '63, he received a severe 
wound, being struck by a ball which lodged in his left lung; he 
was wounded on Saturday evening and lav on the battle field with- 
out attention until Monday evening; he still carries the Rebel lead, 
which has caused him considerable annoyance ever since. On 


July 7, 1865, he was mustered out of the service and received an 
honorable discharge. He returned home to enjoy the Union he 
had fought to preserve; and on April 9, '67, was married to 
Mary Snively, a native of Bedford Count)', Pa., but after a year 
and a half of life together, she was called away on October 9, '68. 
On October 18, 1870, he was again married, this time to Mary E. 
Looney, daughter of John S. and Elizabeth (Thompson) Looney, 
natives of Kentucky, who came to Rush County as earlv as 1S22, 
and her grandfather, Peter Looney, sat on the first Grand Jury ever 
held in Rush Count}'. Mrs. Caldwell was born in Rush County on 
August 3, 1842, and her whole life has been spent here. This 
union has been blessed with seven children: William, Herbert, 
John Charles, Edith R., Robert G., Tully and Annie, who are 
living; an infant is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Caldwell are mem- 
"bers of the Christian Church, and the father of our subject was a 
preacher in that church for forty 3'ears. Mr. Caldwell is a mem- 
ber of Joel Wolf Post No. 81, G. A. R., of Rushville, and a Re- 
publican in politics, and has held the office of Township Assessor. 
He started a poor man in life and to-day owns the old home farm 
having purchased the interest of the other heirs. 

James Downey was born in Nicholas County, Ky., March 16, 
1805, and was the fifth in a family of five sons and four daughters, 
born to Archibald and Sarah (Cook) Downey, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, the former of Welsh, and the latter of Irish descent. Our 
subject was reared amid the slave scenes, on a plantation in Ken- 
tucky. B}' attending the primitive schools of that da}' he learned 
to read, write and cipher. At the age of eighteen he took charge 
of his mother's farm, his father having died when he was about ten 
years of age. He continued to farm the old homestead until his mar- 
riage with Miss Rebecca Hinton, September 21, 1S26. She was 
the daughter of Ezekiel and Martha (Caldwell) Hinton, the former 
a native of Maryland and the latter of Pennsylvania. Mrs. 
Downey was born in Nicholas County, Ky., October 14, 1810, 
where she was reared. After the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Downey, they continued to reside in Kentucky until the 9th day of 
August, 183 1, when he hired a man to move himself and family to 
Rush County, Ind., landing in the little village of Rush\-ille, August 
16, 1S31. Mr. Downey soon purchased a tract of land in Rush- 
ville Township, and moved into a rude log cabin on his own farm. 
On October 3rd, 1831, he entered the farm on which he now re- 
sides, and moved into a cabin near where his residence now stands, on 
January 31, 1832. This tract of land was covered with a dense 
growth of timber, and the undergrowth and spice brush were so 
thick that one could scarcely see a rod ahead, but by dint 


of industry and perseverance, they have succeeded in developing a 
comfortable home. The family circle was blessed with live sons 
and three daughters: Archibald (who lost his life July 22, 1873, 
by the explosion of the boiler of a threshing engine on the farm 
of his father, by which three men were killed; he left a widow 
and live children to mourn his sad fate) ; Martha, David E., John, 
Ezekiel H., George C, Sarah M. and Mar}' E., all of whom are 
married. The latter is married to George H. Bogue, and resides 
on the old home place. Mr. and Mrs. Downey are members of 
the Christian Church, with which they have been united over sixty 
years. In politics, Mr. Downey is a staunch Democrat, and voted 
for Andrew Jackson in 1S28. He has served in the responsible 
position of Justice of the Peace in Jackson Township twenty-one 
3'ears. He began life a poor boj', and has succeeded in making a" 
comfortable home. He is now in his eighty-third year, and has 
resided in Jackson Township fifty-six 3'ears, and is the onlj- pioneer 
left who resides on the land he entered. He and his venerable 
Avife, who has stood by his side for over sixty-three years, are in 
fair health, and bid fair to live and enjo}' many years yet of 
quiet old age. An honest and upright man, he is held in high es- 
teem by the entire community. 

John M. Gor:man was born in Fayette County, Ind., July 16, 
1822. His parents were Daniel and Hannah (Carhin) Gorman, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, born near Pittsburg, on 
the Youghiogheny River, and the latter in Kentucky. They em- 
igrated to Faj-ette County in an earl}' day, the former in 1S16, and 
the latter in 181S. They were married near Connersville, and be- 
gan life together on a farm about seven miles southeast of that 
city. On September 3, 1835, they landed on the farm owned by 
our subject, and resided near here until their respective deaths; the 
former died suddenly of a paralytic stroke December, 18'J'J, and 
the latter of slow consumption in the summer of 1878. On March 
II, 1847, our subject was married to Mary Oldham, daughter of 
James and Polh' Oldham, who were among the pioneers of this 
county. This union was blessed with three children : Minerva, 
Sarah H. and Perry E., of whom the latter was called away when 
about live and one-half years of age. Mrs. Gorman was also 
called away March 15, 1861, after a happj' married life of fourteen 
years and four da3's. She was a kind wife and mother and a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church. After living single over fourteen 
3'ears, Mr. Gorman was married to Mrs. Elizabeth W3'att, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Ann M. Cohee. This union is blessed with a 
daughter: Naoma A., now living. Mr. Gorman is a Republican, 
and has been an active worker in the part3', but has never sought 


office. He began life empty-handed, but with a good character, 
and bv dint of untiring energy and perse\'erance has been very suc- 
cessful. He adopted farming as a life occupation, and to-day- 
owns a good farm and a comfortable home. He is a yery beneyo- 
lent man, and has assisted most eyery public enterprise in the 
county. He, by his financial assistance, aided in building the Rush- 
yille & Knightstown Gravel Road, and holds $1,200 of its stock, 
and he is now Secretary of the same. He also owns stock in the 
Oldham & Sharon Pike, and has money invested in ever}- rail- 
road in the county, and has assisted every church \vithin five miles 
of him. He has resided in the township fifty-two years and is one 
of its most respected citizens. He has witnessed a great change, 
and when he came here the farms did not average five acres of 
cleared land apiece. He allowed no one to lead him in the develop- 
ment, and has done as much as any other man in the township to- 
ward its development. During the war he expended money freely 
in the assistance of the soldiers and their widows and families. 

James Gray is a native of Jackson Township, and was born 
near where he now resides, March 15, 1837. He was the son of 
Thomas, and Leah (David) Gray, daughter of Jacob David, an old 
settler of this count\'. Thomas Gray was one of the earliest set- 
tlers of the county. Our subject was reared on the farm, and has 
adopted farming as a life profession. In 1S65, he was married to 
Miss Polly A. Cross, daughter of Jacob Cross, an old citizen of the 
county. This union is blessed with three children: Francis C, 
Emma J. and Jesse G., all of whom are living. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gra}' are members of the Christian Church. He began life with 
a small start and has been rather successful in his chosen profession; 
at the present time he owns a find improved farm in Section 15, 
and he can be classed among the substantial citizens of Jackson 

Dr. Lot Green was bom in Arlington, Rush County. Ind., 
July 29, 1847. His parents were Dr. J. W. and Mary J. (Gowdy) 
Green, natives of Rush County, Ind., and at present residents 
of Shelbyyille, Ind. Our subject was reared in Arlington where 
his father was engaged in the practice of medicine. In his early 
life he received a good education, and in 187S he entered the medi- 
cal department of Butler University, but prior to this he had read 
under his father and was well versed m anatomy, physics, etc. 
In iSSo he graduated from that institution and first began the 
practice of medicine in Arlington, and has always practiced in this 
count}'. He has been eminently successful in his chosen pro- 
fession. In 1872 he chose for his life companion Cordelia Barnard, 
daughter of Brasilia G. and Rachel (Roberts) Barnard, the former 


a native of North Carolina, who came to Union County with his 
parents when four years of age. The latter was a native of West 
Virginia, and is deceased. Mrs. Green was born in Posey Town- 
ship, and has always resided in Rush County. Mr. and Mrs. 
Green are blessed with five sons, Lucien, Hallie W., Frank H., 
Charlie and Blaine, all living. Mrs. Green is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Green is a member of the 
I. O. O. F. at Arlington. Politically, he is a staunch Republican, 
and takes an interest in the affairs of his party. He began life a 
poor man, but by industry and perseverance has been eminently 
successful. He owns a fine farm in Section '], provided with good 
improvements. An honorable man in all the affairs of life he holds 
the respect and confidence of the people. 

WiLLiA.M KiRKPATRiCK is a native of Harrison County, Ky., 
where he was born August ii, 1806. His parents v\'ere William 
and Anna (Mays) Kirkpatrick, natives of Pennsylvania, who emi- 
grated to Kentucky when quite small, with their parents. In 1S12, 
they removed to Ohio, and thence to Fayette County, Ind., and in 
I S3 1, they arrived in Rush County, Ind., where they resided until 
their deaths. They were among the pioneers of the county. At 
the age of twenty-three, or on April 9, 1S29, he was married to 
Susan Corbin, daughter of Elijah and Sarah (Milner) Corbin, 
the former a native of Virginia, and the latter of Pennsylvania. 
They resided a number of years in Kentucky, and removed from 
Kentucky to near Connersville, Ind., about 181 7, where they re- 
sided until their respective deaths. The former was called away 
in his eighty-fourth j'ear, and the latter in her sixty-seventh year. 
Mrs. Kirkpatrick was born in Bracken County, K}'., March 13, 
1810, and accompanied her parents to this State when she was 
about seven years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Kirkpatrick had born to 
them ten children : Sarah A., Eliza J., Lucinda, John W., Aman- 
da M., Francis M., Hannah C, Elijah A., Mary I. and Martha J., 
who were twins, of whom Eliza J. and Lucinda are deceased. Mr. 
and Mrs. Kirkpatrick are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church.^ Mr. Kirkpatrick began life a poor man, and by hard 
work has made a comfortable home. He has been assisted by a 
kind and loving wife who has stood by his side. They have now 
reaped the fruits of their labors, and are passing a quiet old age 
together where they have spent so many years in making a com- 
fortable home. 

John W. Kirkpatrick, our subject, is a native-citizen and 
prominent stock raiser and farmer of Jackson Township. He was 
born June 25, 1838, and is the son of William and Susan (Corbin) 
Kirkpatrick, both natives of Kentucky, the former of Scotch and 


Irish, and the latter of Enghsh extraction. They were united in 
marriage in Fayette County, Ind., and came to Rush County 
when it was a wilderness, and have resided here ever since. Our 
subject, John W. Kirkpatrick, was reared amid the scenes of farm 
life, and received a fair education in his youth. At the age of 
twenty-two he began life on his own responsibilit}', by engaging at 
farming. In March, 1861, he chose for his life companion Miss 
Margaret E. Dill, daughter of Isaac and Poll_y A. (Gilson) Dill, 
who were among the pioneer settlers of Rushville Township. The 
former was called to eternal rest in 1872. Mrs. Kirkpatrick was 
born near Rushville in 1843, and has resided here ever since. 
Thev have five children: Sylvester C, Alcestis, who at present is 
the wife of Francis M. Smith, and a resident of Grant Count\', Ind., 
Flora B., Pendleton and Maude A., all of whom are living. Syl- 
vester is married and resides hear Occident. Mr. Kirkpatrick 
is a staunch Democrat, and firmly upholds the principles of that 
party, and held the office of Trustee of Jackson Township four 
years. He began life with $1,000, a present from his father, 
and has had many reverses, but by dint of industry- and perseve- 
rance, has been eminently successful. He now owns a fine 
improved farm in Section i, and a large store building in Occident, 
where he owns and controls a large and well selected stock of gen- 
eral merchandise. In 1884, he was appointed Postmaster of Occi- 
dent. He is a: member of the I. O. O. F. of Knightstown. 

George T. Kiplinger was born in Rushville Township, Rush 
County, Ind., October 9, 1S43. His parents were John W. and 
Harriet (Dill) Kiplinger, the former a native of Kentucky, who 
came to Rush County with his parents John W. and Polly (Hays) 
Kiplinger in 1822. This was then a wilderness and he was but 
nine years of age. He continued to reside in the county until his 
death, which occurred February 12, 1884, and for about forty 
years, resided in Jackson Township. He passed away in Rush- 
ville, where to-da}', his wife, and the mother of our subject, now re- 
sides at an advanced age. George spent his boyhood and youth 
on his father's farm, and has adopted farming as a life occupation, 
in which he has been quite successful. On October 6, 1861, he 
was married to Miss Lucy J. Billings, daughter of Elijah and Eliza- 
beth Billings, old residents of Rush County, now deceased. Mrs. 
Kiplinger was born in Jackson Township, October 8, 1844, and was 
reared here. After the marriage of Mr. Kiplinger he engaged in 
farming here, and in 1869 he emigrated to Clarke County, Mo., 
where he resided until Feburar}' 23, 18S3, when he returned to the 
scenes of his childhood, and engaged in farming. He has been 
blessed with eleven children of whom these are now living : Laura 


B., John E., Henry J., Harriet E., George A. by his first wife, and 
Alta G., Chariie T. and Lena L., bv his second. In politics he is 
a Repubhcan and firmly believes in this party, and held office in 
Missouri for six j-ears. He began life a poor man and to-day owns 
a comfortable home. His wife Lucy J., was called away April 4, 
1876. On i-Vpril 15, 1877, he was married to Laurai\. Lagle. 

Ben F. Kiplinger, the son of John W. and Harriet Kip- 
linger was born September 20, 1S54, '" Jackson Township, where 
he has spent his entire life. At the age of eighteen he began 
farming, as a renter, for himself. On September 28, 1880, he chose 
for his wife Mary E. Fleener, the daughter of Thomas and Lemen- 
tine Fleener, both natives of this State and at present residents of 
Arlington, Rush Co., Ind. Mrs. Kiplinger was born August 4, 
iS6r, in Delaware County, Ind., but soon removed to this county. 
This union is blessed with one child, Harriet L., who is living. 
Mr. Kiplinger is a member of Ivory Lodge No. 27, K. of P., of 
Rushville. Politically, he is a Republican. He began life a poor 
man, and has given his attention principally to farming, and now 
owns a comfortable home in Section 12, which is a part of the old 
homestead; it consists of 160 acres of fine land. He is one of 
Jackson's successful farmers. 

Theodore Morris was born in Scott County, Ky., December 
19, 1824. His parents were John and Mary (Millerj Morris, na- 
tives of Kentucky. At the age of three, he accompanied his 
parents to Rush County, where he has since resided. They first 
settled one mile north of Rushville, in what was then a wilderness. 
There his parents both resided until their deaths. Our subject was 
brought up amid the scenes of farm life, and he adopted it as a life 
business, although for man}- years he has dealt considerably in 
stock, such as buying and selling cattle, and for seventeen years 
drove to Cincinnati, Ohio. In i860 he was married to Miss Sarah 
Beaman. To this union four children have been born: Edward, 
Mary Belle, Francis and Dolly, all of whom are living. Mrs. Mor- 
ris was called away in 1S77. Politically, he is a staunch Demo- 
crat, but never sought political honors at the hands of his party. 
He began life a poor man, and by industry and perseverance has 
accumulated considerable property. He now owns about 900 
acres of as fine land as the county affords, which is divided 
into four farms. His home is a pleasant one where he has resided 
over thirty years. He owns a valuable farm near the city of Rush- 
ville. In 1850, he says that $78 and a suit of clothes is every 
dollar he was worth. Thus we find the pioneer of Indiana, who 
has adopted a straight-forward course in life possessed of means, 
and honored and respected by all who know him. 


Lewis J. Newhouse, a prominent farmer and respected citi- 
zen of Jackson Township, was born in Union Township, this countv, 
May 23, 1824. His parents were Samuel and Polly (Kitchen) 
Newhouse, natives of Virginia. The parents of Samuel New- 
house were John and Elizabeth Newhouse, who emigrated to 
Franklin County, Ind., about 1818. Samuel Newhouse and family 
removed to Rush County, locating in Union Township, in 182 1, 
where he entered eighty acres of wild, timbered land, put up a 
cabin and began to clear up a home. He remained there until 
January, 1837, when he disposed of his property in Union Town- 
ship, and purchased 240 acres of uncultivated land in Jackson 
Township, his object being to secure a larger tract of land. Here 
he developed one of the best farms in the township, where after a 
long and useful life he was called away on February 22, 1S62. He 
was a member of the Baptist Church, with which he united early 
in life. The mother survived him until June 14, 1886, when she, 
too, was called home, having reached the advanced age of eight}-- 
three 3'ears. She, also, was a devout member of the Baptist 
Church. Thus ended the lives of two of Rush County's earliest 
pioneers, but the}' are not forgotten ; their memories are kept green 
by sons and daughters who survive them. Our subject, as stated, 
was reared amidst the scenes of pioneer life in this county, and his 
early education was fair for that day of log school houses. At the 
age of twenty-one he began to do for himself, by engaging at 
farming. On April 17, 1849, he was united in marriage with 
Mary A. Hackleman, a native of this county and daughter of 
Richard and Hannah Hackleman, old and respected residents of 
Rush County at the time of the birth of Mrs. Newhouse. The 
former was present when the Surveyor laid out the cit}' of Rush- 
ville, and secured enough timber in what is now the principal 
street of the city to erect a log house. This union was blessed 
with five children: Hannah M., Marshal E., Elbert, Samuel R. and 
Pleasant A., all of whom are married, and enjoying homes of their 
own. This union lasted until May 4th, 1S62, when death visited 
the family circle and Mrs. Newhouse passed away. She died a 
member of the Baptist Church and respected by all who knew her. 
On June 9, 1863, Mr. Newhouse was again married; this time he 
chose for his companion Miss Nancy Pogue, daughter of William 
and Anna (Saj-lers) Pogue, natives of North Carolina. Mrs. 
Newhouse was born in Noble Township, this countv, March 6, 
1837, and her entire life has been spent here. Her parents are de- 
ceased, the mother passing away June 25, 18S7, in her eighty- 
eighth year. This union is also blessed with five children: 
Alfred M., Harvey M., Almeda E., Schuyler C. and Erastmus T., 


tS, 7^, &/c.^^Il 


all of whom are living. Mr. Newhouse is a member of the Bap- 
tist Church with which he has been united over thirtv vears. In 
politics he is a Republican and firmly upholds the principles of that 
party. When he began life on his own responsibility his father 
gave him a horse, saddle and bridle, and $ioo in money; with this 
grand start he began to face this unfriendly world. He commenced 
working by the day and month, receiving very meagre wages, but 
he carefully saved his earnings, and just before his twenty-second 
birthday, he purchased eighty acres of partly improved land in 
Section 24. His neighbors made fun of him for making such a 
choice, and goaded him by saying that he would surely starve out 
on such a poor tract. This was in the spring of 1846, and to-day 
we find Mr. Newhouse still in possession of sixty acres of that 
tract, for which he has refused $100 per acre. He added to the 
tract until at one time he owned here in one body 420 acres, but as 
his children grew up and desired a start in life he would assist 
them, and gradually his farm has decreased until to-da}^ it con- 
sists of 300 acres. His improvements are good and he is now 
enjoying the comforts of a pleasant home. He assisted in building 
the Rushville and Knightstown gravel road, and was one of its 
principal builders, and is now one of its directors. Being reared 
on a farm he adopted farming as a life profession, and to-day can 
be classed among the successful farmers of Jackson Township; he 
has adopted a straight-forward course in life, and has taken a deep 
interest in the welfare of his family, educating his children liberally 
and providing each at the age of twenty-one, or at the time of mar- 
riage, with either forty acres of land or $2,000 in money. Honest 
and upright in all his dealings, he is now one of the respected citi- 
zens of this county. 

John Porter was born in Kanawha Count}-, West Va., Novem- 
ber 16, 1826; his parents were William and Catharine (Martin) 
Porter, the former a native of West Virginia and the latter of Fair- 
fax Count}-, in Old Virgmia. Our subject accompanied them to Rush 
County in 1832, which was then a wilderness and they located on 
the farm that our subject now owns, where they ended their days 
after a long and useful life. The}' left sons and daughters to honor 
and perpetuate their names. John was raised on a farm and has 
adopted farming as a life occupation. In 1844 he was married to 
Sarah J. Hilkert, daughter of Abraham and Hannah ( Perry] Hilk- 
ert, natives of Pennsylvania who emigrated to Rush County in 1840, 
and settled on a tract of land owned at present by our subject, and 
continued to reside near here until their respective deaths. Mrs. 
Porter was born in Union County, Pa., Feburary i, 1826, and 
was fourteen years of age when her parents came here. This 


union was blessed with el^'en children, Mary E., Pern' O., Eliza- 
beth F., Sarah J., Emmeline, Agnes, John W., Anna E., Lawrence 
G., Jefferson D., Edward F., of whom Oscar is deceased. Politi- 
cally, Mr. Porter is a Republican. He began life a poor man, and 
has made what he is now worth by hard industry and perseverance. 
To-day he owns oyer 300 acres of valuable land, divided into three 
farms. He expects to end his days where he has spent the best 
part of his life in making a comfortable home. A man of honor 
and uprightness in life, he has set an honorable example for his sons 
and daughters, who will inherit his earnings at his death. 

John" M. Powell, a prominent farmer of Jackson Township, 
was born in Nicholas County, Ky., November 5) 1824. His par- 
ents were John and Sarah Powell, the former a native of Virginia, 
and the latter of Kentucky. In 1832, thej' emigrated to Rush 
County, and settled three and one half miles northwest of Rush- 
ville, in Rushville Township, where they purchased a tract of wild 
land. There John and Sarah Powell continued to reside until their 
respective deaths. They were among the first settlers of Rush 
County, and did their share while here toward its development. 
Our subject has spent the principal part of his life here, and 
adopted farming as a life profession, which, at the age of twenty- 
four, he began for himself. On November 11, 1856, he was mar- 
ried to Mar}' E. Porter, daughter of William and Catharine Porter, 
deceased pioneers of this county. Mrs. Powell was born in Rush 
County in 1838, and has always resided here. This union has been 
blessed with three children : Homer, Ohve and Huldah, all of \\-hom 
are married and residing within a few miles of the old home farm. 
Politically, Mr. Powell is a staunch Republican, but has never 
sought political honors. He began life a poor man, and by dint of 
industry and perseverance has been eminently successful. He has 
provided each of his children with a farm, and now owns 360 
acres of first-class farming lands. His home place consists of 120 
acres, and is provided with good improvements. He has been a 
hard-working man all through life, and has set a good example for 
his children to follow. He expects now to end his daj's in Rush 
County, where he has spent the best part of his life in making a 
comfortable home. An honest and upright man, he is respected 
by all, and can be classed among the successful farmers of Jackson 

Homer Powell, a prominent young farmer of Jackson Town- 
ship, was born near where he no^^• resides August 13, 1857. His 
parents were J. M. and Mary E. (Porter) Powell, whose biog- 
raphies appear in this volume. Our subject was reared amidst the 
hardships of farm life and adopted farming as a life business. In 



his earlj" life he received a fair education. x\t the age of twentj*- 
one he began life on his own responsibility, and was married to 
Fannie Arnett, daughter of William and Susan (Lakin) Arnett, 
old and respected residents of Pose}' Township, \\here Mrs. Powell 
was born and raised. Politically, he is a Republican. He now 
owns a fine farm of eighty acres in Section 14, with good improve- 
ments, and is in comfortable circumstances. 

Bennett Shields was born in Jackson Township, July 4, 
1844. His patents were James and Alartha (Tablock) Shields, 
natives of Tennessee, being born and raised near Knoxville, and 
were married on June 20, 182S. About 1830, they came to Rush 
County, and located near Little Flat Rock, on what is known as 
the old Grigg farm. This was then a wilderness, and the}' began 
in the woods to make a home. After residing in the county for a 
number of years, he sold out and moved to Hancock County, 
where he died. Mrs. Shields returned to Rush County and ended 
her days here. Bennett was reared on a farm and has adopted 
farming as a life occupation. On January 5, 1870, he was united 
in marriage with Miss Eliza Sharp, daughter of Abram and 
Martha (-Lewellyn) Sharp, the former a native of North Carolina. 
Mrs. Shields was born in Jackson County in 1852, but spent her 
girlhood days principally in Shelby County, Ind. This union was 
blessed with seven children: Robert, Tinnie, Howard, Laura, 
Sallie, Bertha Belle and Lizzie, of whom Laura is deceased. 
Politically, Mr. Shields is a Democrat, but has never sought office. 
He is a self-made man and owns a comfortable home in the 
southern part of Jackson Township. He has witnessed a great 
change in the development of this countr-^-, and will likely make 
this his home till the end of his career. - 

John J. Wilson was born in Franklin County, Ind., November 
3, 1832. His parents were Daniel and Susannah (Luse) Wilson, 
natives of Indiana. In 1839, or at the age of seven, he accompanied 
his parents to Rush County, locating in Union Township, near 
Greenwood, on the farm owned by Stamper White. This was then 
a new country and but little clearing had been made on the tract of 
land they had purchased. There our subject spent his boyhood and 
youth. Bv attending the district schools of that day he received a 
fair education, for those primitive school advantages. About 1840, 
he assisted his father in building the first brick residence erected in 
the township. x\t the age of sixteen, or in 184S, he hired out to 
Silas Clark, to assist him in driving a herd of cattle to New York 
City, and walked the entire distance. After his return he went to 
Tippecanoe County, Ind., to visit with his aunt. While there he 
resolved to go to the Pacific coast for his health; accordingly, 


about the -ist of April, he bid farewell to friends and Hoosierdom, 
and turned his face westward. On the 23rd day of May the}' 
crossed the Missouri River, above the mouth of Platte River, and 
plunged into the then unknown wilds of the west. Their train 
consisted of ox teams, and comprised at that time about twenty 
teams. Capt. Bryant, of Montgomery Count}', Ind., had charge of 
the company. In June they had a skirmish with the Pawnee In- 
dians, and in the fracas killed fourteen and crippled one, when 
they drew off their forces and the train progressed a/n its way with- 
out any further molestations. On Bear River the train separated, 
one branch headed for Salt Lake Cit}-, and the other for Oregon. 
The train now numbered abotit 500 teams, and 4,000 or 5,000 souls. 
The trip across the mountains and to Oregon, was made in safet}'. 
Our subject landed at Salem, Oregon, the latter part of November, 
having been on the route six months and fifteen days. In the 
spring of 1853, Mr. Wilson engaged in mining with A. H. Frj'e, 
and during his residence in Oregon Frye's was his headquarters. 
Although during his nine years' residence in that Territorj' he trav- 
eled over most of it; the object of his trip was realized in the re- 
storing of his health, and in 1861, he resolved to return to his home 
in Indiana. In the spring of 1861, he shipped from San Francisco, 
to the Isthmus of Panama, passed over Lake Nicarauga, and Mexico, 
to the Gulf, and thence to Norfolk, Va., thence to Baltimore, 
and thence to Lancaster, Pa., and from that point to Indianapolis, 
Ind. After his return he engaged in shipping stock to New York 
City, for J. D. Patterson. He then went to Madison County, Ind., 
and engaged in school teaching, where he taught three terms. 
From there he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and engaged as foreman 
in the Dalph Smith distillery. He then returned to Madison County, 
Ind., where he was married to Margaret A. Sloan, by whom he had 
six children, three of whem are living : Minnie C, Susie arid Allie. 
The next spring after his marriage he removed to Rush County, 
and purchased 120 acres of tme tillable land in Jackson Township, 
where he continued to reside until 1S86. when he sold his farm, 
since which time he has been residing with his son-in-law, Henry 
Schonert, of Hamilton, Ind. Politically, he is a staunch Republican, 
but has never held office. He began life a poor n>an and has made 
■every dollar he is worth to-day by hard and earnest toil. Honest 
and upright he can be classed among the prominent pioneers of 
Rush County, Ind. 



The Amos Family is properly introduced in the personage of 
J. J. Amos, Sr., who was born in Bourbon County, ^y-, September 
30th, 1S03, being the fourth child to Nicholas and Ann (Jones) 
Amos, natives of Maryland. Mr. Amos was a student at the sub- 
scription schools and only obtained a limited education. He came 
to Rush County in 1823 and lived with his uncle Abraham Jones, 
and the next spring returned to Kentuck}' and first bought tifty acres 
of land and then purchased the old Amos homestead which he 
owned for several j-ears, and later engaged in stock trading and dis- 
tillery business, and was also engaged in the mercantile business. 
In 1840 he traded his stock of goods, for Soo acres of land 
in Wells County. In 1839 ^^- Amos returned to Rush County 
and located on a farm near New Salem. He has been a successful 
man in life and at one time owned 2,000 acres of land in this count}'. 
Mr. Amos was married January 19th, 1S26, to Miss Ann W. How- 
ard, a native of Bourbon County, Ky., and who died June 17th, 
1859. To Mr. and Mrs. Amos were born eight children, four of 
whom died in early life. Politically, he is a Democrat and a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Protestant Church. At one time Mr. Amos 
donated $2,000 to the Adrian, Michigan, College, of which he is a 
Trustee. Another member of the Amos family is Mrs. Amanda 
Mitchell, who was born in Bourbon County, K3'., September 28th, 
1S28, daughter of James Hildreth, and at the age of seven years, came 
withher parents to Rush Count}'. March 13th, 1851, she was united 
in marriage to Johanan J. Amos, a native of Kentucky, and came to 
Rush County at twelve years of age. By occupation he was a 
stock dealer and shipper. His death occurred in this county, 
January i6th, 1864. To that marriage these three children survive : 
Johanan M., Willard H. and J. J. He was of Democratic faith, 
and a member of the I. O. O. F. Mrs. Amos was married 
April 23rd, iSyijto Thomas V. Mitchell, who died in January, 1881. 
Mrs. Mitchell now resides on the home farm surrounded with the 
comforts of life and is a member of the Christian Church. J. M. 
Amos, a prominent stock breeder of this township, was born March 
5th, 1854, '^'^'i '^ SO" of Johanan J. Amos. He was raised on the 
farm and received a common school education and began doing for 
himself at eighteen years of age. His occupation in life has been that 
of a farmer, and for quite a number of years, he has been giving much 
attention to growing trotters and pacers. Legal Tender, Jr., No. 
3409, a pacer, 2:27 " and sire of Lowland Girl, 2:195^." At his 
stock sale in 1887, Mr. Amos realized more than $2,500. He owns 


a good farm which consists of 215 acres. December 23rd, 1873, 
he was united in marriage to Miss Estella J. Poston, daughter of 
George W. Poston, and was born in this township, Jul}' 22, 1S56. 
To the above marriage are three children: William, born Febru- 
ary 22, 18S1; Ethel, born March 7, 18S3, and Luella, born Ma}' 
13, 18S5. In politics, Mr. Amos is a Republican, and a member 
of the I. O. O. F. Willard H. Amos, a brother of J. M. Amos, 
was born in Rushville Township, Febnaary 26, 1856, and was 
raised upon the farm, and is engaged in farming and stock breeding. 
He was married October 22, 1879, ^° Miss Elizabeth A. Poston, 
who was born in this township, January 31, 1S61, second daughter 
of George W. and Nancy (McNeal) Poston. They have one 
child, Mary, born November 13, 1886. He is a Republican. 
Joseph J., Jr., another member of the Amos family, and youngest 
son now living of Johanan Amos, was born May 5, i860, and 
grew to manhood upon the farm adjoining his present home. He 
received a common school education, and at sixteen years of age 
began farming and trading in stock, which he has since continued. 
Pie was married October 4, 1882, to Miss Fannie M., daughter of 
Seneca andSallie (Patterson) Armstrong, born December 27, 1863. 
One daughter blessed this union, viz.: Ruble May, born April 13, 
1887. He is a firm friend of the Republican party, and owns a 
well improved farm of 160 acres. Joseph Caldwell, the only son 
born to John and Arriette (Amos) Caldwell, was born in this 
county, August 19, 1864. His mother died at two years of age, 
and he was raised by J. J. Amos, Sr. He first attended the coun- 
try schools, and later, attended Adrian College. Reaching his ma- 
jority, he began farming, which he continued until 1887, when he 
remo\-ed to Rushville, where he now resides. He was married 
April 28, 1886, to Miss Hattie Humes, who was born in this county, 
September 7, 1868, daughter of J. C. Humes. Mr. Caldwell is a 
Republican, and he and wife are highly esteemed people. The 
Amos family has been prominently known in this county for many 
years and has been noted for its industry and energy. 

Oscar Applegate, a native of Noble Township, this county, . 
was born November 27th, 1852, being one of two children born to 
John and Ann (Kerr) Applegate, the former born in Butler County, 
Ohio, November 21, 1818, andthe eldest son born to Enoch Apple- 
gate, and the latter, born in Fayette Countv, Ind., November 
26, 1818, daughter of Alexander and Rachel (Potter) Applegate. 
John Applegate came to Fayette County, Ind., in boyhood, and was 
by occupation a wagon maker. His marriage occurred March 10, 
1840, to Miss Kerr. In March, 1846, he removed to Rush County, 
locating in Noble Township, where he began manufacturing car- 


riages and buggies, which he continued until his death which oc- 
curred October 26, 1S71. His companion yet survives him and 
now hves upon the home farm, with her only son. Oscar Apple- 
gate was reared on the farm and received a good education, hav- 
ing taken a commercial course at Richmond, Ind. He, like his 
father, is a staunch Republican and always takes an active interest 
in his party. His marriage occurred January 12, 1S81, to Miss 
Nannie, daughter of Martin and Gusta (Buell) Blacklidge. By 
this union one daughter, Rhoda, was born August 10, 1884. 

Henry Ar:mstrong, farmer, was born in Franklin County, 
Ind., February 25, 1822, son of James E. and Mary (Lines) Arm- 
strong, and is of Enghsh descent. His father was born in Hamil- 
ton County, Ohio, about 1797, and died January i, 1883. His 
mother was a native of South Carolina, born in iSoo, and died in 
18S0. The family first came to Rush County about 1821, and re- 
mained a short time, when they returned to Frankhn. County, where 
they lived until 1827, when they again came to this count}^ and 
settled in Noble Township. Our subject received a common school 
education, and has farmed for himself since his twenty-third 
year. He now owns 200 acres of fine land, and in 1852, pur- 
chased his present home. In 1844, he married Miss Amanda An- 
derson, a native of Bpone County, Ky., born April 29, 1S28, 
daughter of Henrj' and Nancy Anderson. They are the parents of 
six children, viz.: Leonidas, Anderson, Florence B., Missouri D., 
Pleasant A. and George. Mr. Armstrong is a Republican, and for 
more than sixty years has been a resident of this county. He has 
been a member of the Christian Church since 1874, and his wife 
has been a member of the same since 1869. 

David Beaver, a retired farmer, was born in Harrison County, 
Ky., January 12, 1814, and is one of seven children, born to 
Michael and Margaret (Coon) Beaver, both natives of Maryland, 
and of German lineage. The person here named came to Rush 
Count}' in boyhood, and knows by practical experience, what 
clearing a home from the unbroken forest means. He remained at 
home until the purchase of his present farm, which consist of eighty 
acres. His marriage took place in the fall of 1855, to Miss Mary 
S. Graham, a native of this township, born September 14, 1834, 
and was a daughter of Hezekiah and Sarah (Smith) Graham, na- 
tives of Pennsylvania and Ohio. To this marriage were born six 
children, and of whom, the following are now living: Melissa A., 
Rachel, Viola and David R. Mrs. Beaver died June, 1869. Mr. 
Beaver is a Republican, and is an industrious man. 

William M. Brooks, an enterprising and progressive farmer 
of Noble Township, was born in Nicholas County, Ky., July 7, 


1841, and is of English lineage. He is the seventh child born to 
Mosley and Susanna (Geohegan) Brooks, natives of the same 
county, the former born in 1805, and died in 1873, the latter born 
1803, and died in 1871. The paternal grandfather, Zachariah 
Brooks, was a native of Virginia, who, at an early date, removed 
to Kentucky, where he died at the age of ninet}' years. His ma- 
ternal grandfather, a native of Delaware, was a soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and died in Kentucky. In 1851, the familv came 
to Rush County. Our subject received a common school educa- 
tion, and his occupation has always been that of a farmer. He 
now resides on the old Brooks homestead, and is the owner of 
more than 500 acres of land. In 1862, Mr. Brooks enlisted 
in Company I, Fifty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. After 
serving seven months, he resigned on account of physical disability. 
The marriage of Mr. Brooks was solemnized October 6, 1S69, to 
Miss Laura D. Downey, born in Warren County, Ohio, November 
4, 1849. '^h^y ^""^ ^^^ parents of seven children, viz.: Minnie D., 
born 1870; Cora D., born 187 1; Harry D., born 1873; Edith E., 
born 1875; Ida F., born 1878; Wilham M., Jr., born 1884, and 
Leslie R., born 1887. Mr. Brooks is a staunch Republican and 
a member of the G. A. R. For four years he was Trustee of 
Noble Township. Mr. and Mrs. Brooks are members of the 
Christian Church. 

Melvin W. Brooks was born in Nicholas County, Ky., April 
18, 1844; son of Mosley Brooks. The subject of this sketch came 
with his parents to this county, when but five years of age, and re- 
ceived a common school education. At the age of eighteen j-ears, 
he enlisted in the Fifty-second Regiment, Company G, Indiana 
Volunteer Infantrj', under Col. Wolf and Capt. Ross Guffin. He 
participated at the battle of Fort Donelson where he was wounded. 
He was a true and brave soldier and at the end of three years and 
eight months was honorably discharged, came home and resumed 
the occupation of a farmer, and now owns a farm of 175 acres of 
well improved land. The marriage of Mr. Brooks wa solemnized 
April 23, 1867, to Miss Alice A., daughter of Horatio and Nancy 
(Townsend ) Culver, natives of New York and Ohio. Mrs. Brooks 
was born January 31, 1849, and is the mother of the following 
children; Fannie, Forrest, Charles, Sadie, Mertie, Vernon and 
Oliver M. Politically, Mr. Brooks is a Republican, and also a mem- 
ber of the G. A. R. Mr. and Mrs. Brooks are members of the 
Christian Church. 

H. S. Carney, ex-Sheriff of this county, was born in Ripley 
County, Ind., August 18, 1838, the only son born to John D. and 
Sarah (Smith) Carney, and is of German-Irish lineage. John D. 



Carney was a native of Indiana County, Pa., who in early life came 
to Ohio, and later, removed to Fayette County, Ind., where he 
died in 1850, his wife dying two years later. The subject of this 
sketch was left an orphan at the age of fourteen years, and at this 
time was thrown upon his own resources. He soon after came to 
Rush County, and engaged as a farm hand. At the age of twenty- 
one years, he enlisted in Company G, Fifty-second Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, and took part in a number of the most important 
battles of the late war. In 1862, he was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant, and seven days later, was placed in command of his 
companv, which position he held during the remainder of his ser- 
vice in that company. After an active and faithful service for three 
years in his country's cause, he was honorably discharged, and return- 
ing home again took up the avocation of a farmer, and now owns 
no acres of good land, located on Little Flat Rock. His marriage 
occurred April 10, 1879, ^'^ Miss Gertrude, daughter of W. H. and 
Sarah E. Downey, who was born June 26, 1853. To this union are 
two children, viz. : Charles Garfield and Harriet E. He is a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O. F., and G. A. R. Mr. Carney and wife are 
worthy members of the Christian Church and among Noble Town- 
ship's best citizens. 

James Culbertson, farmer and stock-raiser, was born in Rush 
County, Ind., October 22, 1829, son of William and Cassandra 
(Kirk) Culbertson, and is of Irish-English descent. His father 
was born in Pennsylvania in 1787; and died in this county in 1S54. 
His mother was born in Kentucky in 1806, and died in Favette 
County, Ind., in 1S76. In 1828 the Culbertson family came to 
Rush County and settled in Noble Township. The father of 
Mr. Culbertson was a soldier in the War of 181 2. The subject of 
this sketch was educated at the subscription schools, and at the age 
of twenty-one years began farming for himself, and now owns 150 
acres of valuable land. For several years he has given his atten- 
tion to stock raising and has some fine Short Horn cattle; also Po- 
land China hogs. In 1852 he was married to Miss Mary E. Morris, 
born in Noble Township February 3, 1835. They have twelve 
living children, viz.: Lena, Martha A., Amanda, Eugene L., Am- 
brose E., Margaret, Mary, Nora, Ida, Grace, James E. and Alberta. 
He is a true P>.epublican and a highly respected citizen. 

John Davidson, farmer and stock-raiser, was born in Noble 
Township, January 7, 1835, son of Ezekiel and Maria (Lewis) 
Davidson. The father was born in New Jersey in 1809, and is of 
Scotch parentage. In 1826, he, with his father, came to 
Rush County, and here married Miss Maria Lewis, a native of this 
county. In 1S39, '^^ removed to Hendricks County, Ind., locating in 


the forest on land that he had entered. Mr. Davidson and wife 
were members of the Christian Church, and were loved and es- 
teemed by all. Mrs. Davidson died September i8, 1S4S; Mr. Da- 
vidson followed July 13, 1865. The immediate subject of this 
sketch was raised on the farm and was a student at the country 
school, and at eighteen summers, began life on his own account, 
locating in White County, where he engaged in farming. In 1S57, 
Mr. Davidson returned to Rush Count}', where he has since re- 
mained. His vocation has been that of a farmer, and he now owns 
a farm consisting of 218 acres, three and one-half miles southeast 
of Rushville. Mr. Davidson was married December 15, 1S5S, to 
Isabel M., daughter of Henry and Sallie (Ambers) Guffin, who 
was born Ma}' 20, 1841, and whose death occurred December 19, 

1875, she leaving these three children: John A., Harrison S., and 
Elbert C. Mr. Davidson was married October 9, 187S, to 
Mrs. Mary S. Bedell, of this county, born June 16, 1S47, daughter 
of Jacob and Eliza Wolf. Politically, Mr. Davidson is a staunch 
Republican. He is a worthy citizen and a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. Mrs. Davidson is a member of the Presbyterian 

Benjamin Frazee, the most extensive land-owner in Rush 
County, Ind., was born in Bracken County, Ky., April 6, 1824, son 
of William and Catherine (King) Frazee, the former born in Ken- 
tucky, March 10, iSoo, and died beptember 11, 1877; the latter 
born in Kentucky, November 13, 1801, and died February 17, 

1876. The Frazee family came to Indiana in 1829, and were 
among the pioneers of this county. The subject of this sketch 
received a very limited education, and at the age of twenty years 
began farming rented land, being too poor to purchase land. In 
185 1, he purchased a small farm, consisting of forty acres, for 
which he paid $624. He now owns 1,900 acres of land in this 
county and is worth over $150,000. In 1854, ^^ '^^^^ united in 
marriage to Miss Ruth Tompson, born April 6, 1835. They are 
the parents of six children, viz.: Medaline, born February 6, 1855; 
John H., born July 22, 1S57; Laura, born August 3, i860; Alice, 
born December 7, 1862; Katie, born May 8, 1869, and James E., 
born November 15, 1872. Mr. Frazee was formerly a Whig, but 
is now an ardent Republican. He and wife are members of the 
Christian Church, and among the best known people of Rush 
County. Mr. Frazee's portrait appears on another page of this 

Ephraim Samuel Frazee was born in Mayslick, Mason County, 
Ky., October 4, 1824. His father was of English descent. In the 
early part of the eighteenth century, two sons of Frazee, 


who lived in the western part of England, emigrated to the new 
world, having obtained a grant of land from the English crown. 
They settled near Elizabethtown, N. J. One of these, Ephraim, 
was married three times and had eighteen children. Samuel — a 
son of his second wife — moved to Westmoreland Countv, Pa., in 
1760. His father accompanied him and died there in 1776. In 
1779, he emigrated to Kentucky, although he aid not move his 
family there until 1784- He was associated with Boone and Ken- 
ton in the early history of that State and was in a number of battles. 
He was active, brave and ver}' fleet of foot, and for these reasons 
was often sent on dangerous expeditions. He was once sent alone 
with government dispatches from the Falls of Ohio, where Louis- 
ville now stands, to Harrodsburg Station. He also blazed the road 
from Louisville to Lexington. He married Miss Rebecca Jacobs 
in Ohio in i777- They had six children. Their third child, Eph- 
raim, was born in 1792, in Mason County, Ky. He was educated 
for a physician at the Medical College in Philadelphia. He had 
but just established a lucrative practice when he died suddenly, 
leaving a young widow and four sons, one Ephraim Samuel, an in- 
fant. This widowed mother was Susan Doniphan, a sister to Gen. 
A. W. Doniphan, of Missouri, and cousin to Gov. William Smith of 
Virginia, familiarly known as " Extra Billy. " Her great grandfather 
was a Spanish cavalier who was banished by King Philip II. for 
having spared the inhabitants of a captured town. He escaped to 
Scotland where he married an heiress, Miss Mott. Their children 
were loyal to Charles the First, and after the restoration of Charles 
the Second, the}' were rewarded with a grant of land in Virginia. 
Their grandson, Joseph Doniphan, married Miss Smith and emi- 
grated to Kentucky about the year 1785. Their daughter Susan 
was born near Washington, Ky., in 1794, the fifth child in a family 
of eight. She was a woman of keen intellect, unswerving integ- 
rity and thoroughly devoted to her family and friends. Her mar- 
ried life was spent in Mayslick, although her husband had entered 
several tracts of land in Rush and Fayette counties, Ind. She con- 
tinued to live near her friends in Kentucky, until her boys were 
nearl}' grown. She came to Indiana twice on horseback to con- 
tract for improvements on the farm in Noble Township, to which 
she mo^'ed when Samuel was fifteen years old. The farm selected 
for their home was an unbroken section adjoining Favette County, 
and here Mr. Frazee has lived ever since. He was educated at 
Bethany College, Va., when Alexander Campbell, its founder, was 
in his prime. At the age of twenty-two he married Miss Frances 
E. Austen of Fayette County, whose family came from Baltimore 
when she was a child. They have had twelve children, eight of 


whom, four sons and four daughters are living, and four, one son 
and three daughters are dead. Soon after his marriage he was 
made an Elder in the Christian Church at Fayetteville, a position 
he still holds. Since 1S50 he has preached regularly for that 
church and those in the vicinity. He has conducted from early 
manhood a large farm and kept it well supplied with valuable 
stock. He has paid special attention to Short Horn cattle and heavy 
draft horses. He has also devoted considerable time in adminis- 
tering on estates and attending to the interests of many wards. He 
has always been ready to assist any enterprise that was for the 
public good, both with time and money. He has been a Republican 
ever since the organization of that party, and has twice been sent 
to the State Legislature, in 1882 and 18S4; these being the only 
times he was ever candidate for office. In this capacitv he repre- 
sented his count}' in a manner highly creditable to himself, and en- 
tirely satisfactory to his constituents, devoting his attention particu- 
larl}' to legislation affecting the agricultural interests. From that 
time to the present he has devoted himself to his profession as a 
minister, and his business, agricultural and live stock interests. His 
reputation as a successful breeder of Short Horn cattle is not lim- 
ited to his own State. He is widely and favorably known in the 
adjoining States, and his stock ranks among the very best. His 
show herd of 1887 would compare favorably with the far-famed 
Kentucky cattle. It would be unjust to close this sketch without 
mentioning what Mr. Frazee has done to promote the educational 
interests of the State. He not onl}- assisted in establishing the Fay- 
etteville Academy, but was one of the original stockholders of the 
Northwestern Christian University (now Butler University), and 
from its founding to the present has been one of its best friends, 
having served as one of its Board of Directors probably twenty 
years, being now a servant and devoted worker in that capacity. 
In short, his life has been exemplarv and worthy of emulation, hav- 
ing been devoted constantlv to the highest religious, moral and 
phj-sical interests, not only of those immediately associated with him, 
but of the community and State in which he has lived. 

Andrew Guffin was born in Rushville Township, this county, 
January 5, 1832, son of George and Margaret (Reid) Guffin, and 
is of German and Scotch-Irish extraction. His father was born in 
Kentuck)' in 1800 and died in this count}' in 1845: his mother was 
born in Ohio in 1S05, and died in this county in 1841. His grand- 
father was born in Virginia in 1774, and was a soldier in the War 
of 1S12, and he died in Kentucky in 1850. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject was George Guffin, a native of Germany, and 
a soldier in the Revolution, and whose death occurred in Virginia. 



The immediate subject of this sketch is the second in a family of 
seven children, all of whom are yet living. He was educated at 
the subscription schools, and at the age of seventeen 3'ears began 
the battle of life for himself, and has by hard labor and strict econ- 
omy succeeded. In 1S56 he located on his present farm which 
consists of 280 acres of valuable land. Mr. Guffin was married 
Januarv 18, 1852, to Miss Clarinda Brooks, of Adams County, Ohio, 
born July 30, 1S36. To this union were born ten children, viz.: 
Celinda A., Orlander F., Lincoln, Nellie, Josie, Charles, Andrew, 
Claude, Maude and Theodosia. Mr. Guffin is a Republican, and 
he and wife are members of the Christian Church. 

George Guffin, a representative farmer and stock raiser, was 
born in Rush County, Ind., March 27, 1835, and is one of seven 
children, and was raised on a farm near the City of Rushville; be- 
ginning life for himself at fifteen years of age, and at eighteen 
began teaching school which he continued for several winter terms, 
farming during the summer. In 1854, he began the mercantile 
business at New Salem, which he continued until 1S56, and in the 
fall of the same year entered Fairview Academy, where he con- 
tinued for eighteen months, and then taught school during the win- 
ter season and carried on farming during the summer. In 1866, 
Mr. Guffin purchased his present farm, which consists of 160 acres 
of fine land, and which he has made by close application to busi- 
ness. It can be said of him that he has been the builder of his 
own success. Mr. Guffin was united in marriage September 14, 
1S58, to Miss Rachel A. Hunt, who was born in Noble Township 
August 24, 1839. "^o ^^'"- '^^'^ Mrs. Guffin were born the follow- 
ing children: Lot D., Chestina, Margaret A. and George P. In 
politics, Mr. Guffin is a Republican, and has filled some of the town- 
ship offices. 

Joseph Heaton, one of the early settlers of Rush County, was 
born in Fleming County, Ky., May 18, 1821, son of John and 
Hester (Jarvis) Heaton, and is of German descent. His parents 
were natives of Pennsylvania, who emigrated to Indiana about 1822, 
and settled in Rush County, Ind., where they died. The immediate 
subject of this sketch is the youngest in a family of thirteen 
children, three of whom are now living. He was educated at tlie 
pioneer schools of this county, and at the age of twenty-one 3'ears, 
began life for himself. In 1843, he settled where he now resides. 
His farm consists of 305 acres, and is well improved. In 1841, he 
married Elizabeth — daughter of James and Mary Armstrong, who 
was born in Noble Township, this county, in 1824. To this union 
four children have been born, viz. : Salena, John, Thomas and San- 


ford. Mr. Heaton is a Democrat, and a member of the Christian 

Joseph Holman, the gentleman whose name introduces this 
biography, was born in New Jersey, December 14, 1830, son of 
James and Nancy (Johnson) Hohnan, natives of the same State, the 
former born in i797? ^incl the latter in 1804. Thev both died in 
this county. The famil}- came to Rush Countv, Ind., about 1834, 
and settled in Noble Township. The immediate subject of this 
sketch is the eldest son in a family of eight children, six of whom 
are now living. In 1880, Mr. Holman purchased his piesent resi- 
dence, and is the owner of 160 acres of tine land. His marriage 
occurred October iS, 1864, to Miss Martha Wellman, born in this 
township, February 20, 1840, daughter of Aaron and Frances 
(Lines-) Wellman. They have three children, as follows: John P., 
born in 1866; Edmond, born 1S69, and Lot, born 1870. The father 
of Mrs. Holman was born in Kentucky, in 1805, and was a son of 
Jasper and Drucilla Wellman. He came to Indiana, and settled in 
Rush County, in 1827, on a farm near New Salem, and March 25, 
1S28, he was united in marriage to Miss Frances Lines, who was 
born in Franklin County, Ind., July 19, 1812. Mr. Wellman died 
February 28, 1868, and Mrs. Wellman, September 23, 1877. In 
politics, he was formerh' a Whig, but at the time of his death, a 
pronounced Republican. He and wife were members of the Metho- 
dist Protestant Church. They were pioneers of this countv and 
of the fourteen children born to them, ten are now living. Mr. 
Holman is a Republican, and he and wife are members of the 
Methodist Protestant Church. 

John C. Humes, Ex-County Treasurer, was born in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, October 6, 1839, and is the third in a family of nine 
children born to Thomas and Eliza (Brown) Humes, and is of 
Scotch-Irish lineage. His father was born in Hamilton Countv, 
Ohio, in 1810, and died in his native countv November 15, 1S80; 
his mother was born near College Hill, Hamilton Count}', Ohio, in 
1809, and died in Rushville, October 3, 1874. She was a daughter 
of Hon. Israel Brown, a member of the Ohio Legislature and af- 
terward one of the Associate Judges of Hamilton County. The 
paternal grandfather of our subject was John Humes, a native of 
Scotland, who came to America and settled in Ohio in a ver}- earh' 
day. He married Maria Varhees, who died in Effingham County, 
Ills. The grandfather died in Hamilton Countv, Ohio. The 
immediate subject of this sketch began life for himself, at nineteen 
vears of age, and farmed until August, 1862, when he enlisted in 
Company I, Sixty-eighth Indiana ^'olunteer Infantry, and served un- 



til the close of the war. He was one of four brothers who enlisted in 
the late war, one of whom lost his life at the battle of Nashville. In 
1S63, Mr. Humes was placed upon detached service, and in that ca- 
pacity served some time. Returning home he resumed farming, in 
1844, he came to Rush County, and with his parents, settled where 
he now resides. He owns 320 acres of land. He is a staunch 
Republican, and in 1S78, was elected to the office of Township 
Trustee, and in 1880, was re-elected. In 1882, he was elected 
Treasurer of this countv, and was re-elected in 1884. This posi- 
tion he filled with credit to himself. He was united in marriage 
February 21, i860, to Miss Mary E. Perkins, daughter of Ira S. 
and Charlotte (Randall) Perkins. Mrs. Humes was born August 
13, 1S43. Her father was born in Franklin County, Ind., in 
1810, and her mother in New Jersey, in 1S09, and now resides with 
her children in this township. Thev have nine children, viz. : Or- 
vill P., born December 23, i860; John W., born December 21, 
1862; Otto E., born June 7, 1S66; Hattie L., born September 7, 
1869; Curtis B., born December 25, 1871; Jesse, born October 
24, 1873; Annie G., born September 7, 1875; Stella M., born 
March 11, 1878, and Charles Dolph, born' June 24, 18S2. He is a 
Mason, a K. of P., and a member of Rushville Council R. A. No. 
887. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and are among the prominent people of the communit}' in which 
they reside. A portrait of Mr. Humes is presented with this vol- 
ume as one of the leading citizens of the countv. 

Abijah W. Hunt, a pioneer farmer of this township, was born 
in Hamilton County, Ohio, February 8, 1S07, son of Jonathan and 
Jane (Smith) Hunt, and is of Welsh-German lineage. His father, 
a native of New Jersey, died in this county in 1842. The mother 
of our subject was born in Kentucky and died in this count}- about 
1S54. About the year 1808, the Hunt family located in Franklin 
County, Ind., where they remained until 1828, when they removed 
to Rush County. Our subject is the second in a family of nine 
children, only two of whom are living. He was reared on the farm 
and attendee! the subscription school. In 1852, Mr. Hunt settled 
where he now resides. He owns 240 acres of valuable land and is 
an energetic, industrious and successful farmer. Mr. Hunt was 
married to Miss Margaret Stephen, December 23, 1830. Mrs. 
Hunt is a native of Hamilton County, Ohio, born June 30, 1813, 
daughter of Levi and Rachael Stephen, who came to Rush County 
about 1825. To this union seven children were born, viz.: Jane, 
Elizabeth, John R., Levi S., America, Rachael A., and Frankhn. 
Mrs. Hunt died December 25, 1S74. Politically, Mr. Hunt is a 


Democrat and cast his first vote for Andrew Jackson. He is a 
member of the Christian Church. 

Ephraim Lefforge is a native of Rush Count}-, born Janu- 
ary 12, 1838, the youngest of five children born to John and 
Harriet (Herndon) Lefforge, the former born in New Jersev in 
1795, and died in this count}^ Jul}' 6, 18S6; the latter born in Vir- 
ginia in 1807, and died June i, 1867. The father of our subject 
was among the pioneers of the township, having entered land here, 
in February, 1821. His first marriage occurred, when in his teens, 
to Miss Sarah Lyons, who died, leaving five children. Mr. Lef- 
forge was again married in 1829, to Miss Herndon. He partici- 
pated in the organization of Noble Township; he was a Republican 
and a member of the Baptist Church. Ephraim Lefforge was 
reared on the farm and was a student at the common schools. At 
the age of twentv-one years he began farming for himself and this 
he continued until August, 1S62, when he enlisted in Company I, 
Sixty-eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantrv, for three years. 
He participated in a number of prominent battles and was a true 
and brave soldier. Mr. Lefforge was honorably discharged, June 
7, 1865, and returning home, began farming, which vocation he has 
since followed. In 1875 he purchased his present farm, which con- 
sists of 120 acres. His marriage- occurred August 30, 1866, to 
Mrs. Mary (Westerfield) Davis, born in Madison County, Ind., 
April 18, 1844, daughter of Enoch and Ursula (Mauzy) Wester- 
field. To this union, one daughter, Ida, was born, May 31, 1867. 
Mrs. Lefforge and daughter are members of the Christian Church, 
and Mr. Lefforge is a Republican. 

Samuel H. Logan, a native of Rush County, Ind., was born 
August 14, 1839, son of James and Elizabeth (Mann) Logan, who 
were among the first settlers of Rush County. James Logan was 
born m Ireland in 1800, and came to America with his parents, and 
as early as 1822, the Logan Family made settlement in Rush 
County, and were among the early people who purchased land at 
the Land Sale. In 1825, James Logan was married to Miss Eliz- 
abeth Mann, daughter of John and Abigail Mann. To this union 
were born nine children, six of whom are now living. Mr. and 
Mrs. Logan were widely known and greatly respected; the latter 
died in 1879, '^"^ ^^^ former in 18S1. The subject of this sketch 
was reared on a farm in this township and received a common 
school education. By occupation Mr. Logan is a farmer and now 
owns 240 acres of valuable land, and as a farmer he is one of the 
foremost and enterprising men in the township. In March, 1866, 
Mr. Logan was united in marriage to Miss Martha A. McKee, who 

'a,,L^^ -^^^^^ 



was born in this township September 15, 1843, daughter of David 
and Martha (Woods) McKee, natives of Ohio and Kentucky, the 
former born in 181 1 and the latter in 1810. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Logan were born four children, viz. : Mary E., Wilbur E., Henry V., 
and James W. Mr. Logan and wife are members of the Presby- 
terian Church. 

Charles H. McKee was born on the farm where he now re- 
sides, November 15, 1S38, son of John McKee, who was born in 
Jessamine County, K}^., March 10, 1816. By occupation he was 
a farmer^ and as early as 1822 came to Rush County where he was 
married March 22, 1836, to Miss Hester Ann, daughter of Charles W. 
and Elizabeth Marrow, who came to Indiana from New Jersey. 
Mrs. McKee died August 2, 187 1, leaving six children. Mr. Mc- 
Kee is a Republican and a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The gentleman whose name introduces this biography 
was reared on the farm and attended the common schools. He 
has always followed the avocation of a farmer, and now owns 145 
acres of well improved land. Mr. McKee was married April 3, 
1862, to Miss Catharine Simonson, of Franklin County, Ind., born 
April 3, 1S40, daughter of William and Eliza (Height) Simonson, 
both natives of Indiana. They are the parents of ten children, 
nine of whom are now living, viz.: Ella, born March 10, 1863; 
Carrie, bora November 17, 1865; Eliza, born February 28, 1868; 
Hester A., born September 18, 1870; Mattie M., born December 
10, 1873; John F., born March 6, 1875; Maggie M., born Febru- 
ary 9, 1877; William S., born July 14, 1879; and Nellie G., born 
October 2, 1882. Mr. Mckee is a Republican, and he and wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Hainiilton Miller, merchant, is a native of Mason Count}-, 
Ky., born June 11, 1809, and is of Scoth descent. His father, 
James Miller, was